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Memories that are emotionally arousing generally promote the survival of species; however, the systems that modulate emotional learning can go awry, resulting in pathological conditions such as post-traumatic stress disorders, phobias, and addiction. Understanding the conditions under which emotional memories can be targeted is a major research focus as the(More)
Fear memories are notoriously difficult to erase, often recovering over time. The longstanding explanation for this finding is that, in extinction training, a new memory is formed that competes with the old one for expression but does not otherwise modify it. This explanation is at odds with traditional models of learning such as Rescorla-Wagner and(More)
When presented with a light cue followed by food, some rats simply approach the foodcup (Nonorienters), while others first orient to the light in addition to displaying the food-cup approach behavior (Orienters). Cue-directed orienting may reflect enhanced attentional and/or emotional processing of the cue, suggesting divergent natures of cue-information(More)
Activation of GABA(A)Rs in the lateral nucleus of the amygdala (LA), a key site of plasticity underlying fear learning, impairs fear learning. The role of GABA(C)Rs in the LA and other brain areas is poorly understood. GABA(C)Rs could be an important novel target for pharmacological treatments of anxiety-related disorders since, unlike GABA(A)Rs, GABA(C)Rs(More)
INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES IN APPETITIVE LEARNING HAVE LONG BEEN REPORTED, AND GENERALLY DIVIDE INTO TWO CLASSES OF RESPONSES: cue- vs. reward-directed. The influence of cue- vs. reward-directed phenotypes on aversive cue processing, is less well understood. In the current study, we first categorized rats based on their predominant cue-directed orienting(More)
Retrieval of consolidated memories induces a labile phase during which memory can be disrupted or updated through a reconsolidation process. A central component of behavioral updating during reconsolidation using a retrieval-extinction manipulation (Ret+Ext) is the synaptic removal of a calcium-permeable-α-amino-3-hydroxyl-5-methyl-4-isoxazole-propionate(More)
Pairing a previously neutral conditioned stimulus (CS; e.g., a tone) to an aversive unconditioned stimulus (US; e.g., a footshock) leads to associative learning such that the tone alone comes to elicit a conditioned response (e.g., freezing). We have previously shown that an extinction session that occurs within the reconsolidation window (termed retrieval(More)
Acquiring information about stimuli that predict danger, through either direct experience or inference from a social context, is crucial for individuals’ ability to generate appropriate behaviors in response to threats. Utilizing a modified demonstrator–observer paradigm (fear conditioning by proxy) that allows for free interaction between subjects, we show(More)
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