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There is substantial interest in the development of drugs that limit the extent of ischemia-induced cardiac damage caused by myocardial infarction or by certain surgical procedures. Here, using an unbiased proteomic search, we identified mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2) as an enzyme whose activation correlates with reduced ischemic heart(More)
Considerable evidence indicates that free radical injury may underlie the pathologic changes in muscular dystrophies from mammalian and avian species. We have investigated the role of oxidative injury in muscle necrosis in mice with a muscular dystrophy due to a defect in the dystrophin gene (the mdx strain). In order to avoid secondary consequences of(More)
Muscle cell survival depends upon the presence of various integrins with affinities for different extracellular matrix proteins. The absence of either alpha(5) or alpha(7) integrins leads to degenerative disorders of skeletal muscle, muscular dystrophies. To understand the cell survival signals that are mediated by integrin engagement with matrix proteins,(More)
Huntington's disease (HD) is the result of expression of a mutated Huntingtin protein (mtHtt), and is associated with a variety of cellular dysfunctions including excessive mitochondrial fission. Here, we tested whether inhibition of excessive mitochondrial fission prevents mtHtt-induced pathology. We developed a selective inhibitor (P110-TAT) of the(More)
Several lines of evidence suggest that free radical mediated injury and oxidative stress may lead to muscle necrosis in the muscular dystrophies, including those related to defects in the dystrophin gene. We have examined muscle cell death using an in vitro assay in which the processes that lead to myofiber necrosis in vivo may be amenable to investigation(More)
AIMS Protein kinase C epsilon (PKCepsilon) is critical for cardiac protection from ischaemia and reperfusion (IR) injury. PKCepsilon substrates that mediate cytoprotection reside in the mitochondria. However, the mechanism enabling mitochondrial translocation and import of PKCepsilon to enable phosphorylation of these substrates is not known. Heat shock(More)
To understand how muscle cell spreading and survival are mediated by integrins, we studied the signaling events initiated by the attachment of muscle cells to fibronectin (FN). We have previously demonstrated that muscle cell spreading on FN is mediated by alpha5beta1 integrin, is associated with rapid phosphorylation of focal adhesion kinase and is(More)
Pax3 and Pax7 play distinct but overlapping roles in developmental and postnatal myogenesis. The mechanisms involved in the differential regulation of these highly homologous proteins are unknown. We present evidence that Pax3, but not Pax7, is regulated by ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation during adult muscle stem cell activation. Intriguingly,(More)
alpha5-deficient mice die early in embryogenesis (). To study the functions of alpha5 integrin later in mouse embryogenesis and during adult life we generated alpha5 -/-;+/+ chimeric mice. These animals contain alpha5-negative and positive cells randomly distributed. Analysis of the chimerism by glucose- 6-phosphate isomerase (GPI) assay revealed that(More)
Activation of protein kinase C (PKC) isozymes is associated with their translocation from the cell-soluble fraction to the cell-particulate fraction, presumably near their protein substrates. Therefore, identifying the subcellular localization of each activated PKC isozyme may help to elucidate its role in cardiac functions. In the present work, we have(More)