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BACKGROUND Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic inflammatory skin disease characterized by a disturbed epidermal barrier. In a subset of patients, this is explained by nonsense mutations in the gene encoding filaggrin (FLG). OBJECTIVES We sought to evaluate the respective role of FLG mutations and proinflammatory cytokines and to assess the expression of(More)
OBJECTIVE Autoantibodies to citrullinated proteins (ACPAs) are specific for rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and probably are involved in its pathophysiology. Citrullyl residues, posttranslationally generated by peptidyl arginine deiminase (PAD), are indispensable components of ACPA-targeted epitopes. The aim of this study was to identify which PAD isotypes are(More)
Filaggrin-2 (FLG2), a member of the S100-fused type protein family, shares numerous features with filaggrin (FLG), a key protein implicated in the epidermal barrier functions. Both display a related structural organization, an identical pattern of expression and localization in human epidermis, and proteolytic processing of a large precursor. Here, we(More)
Peptidylarginine deiminases (PADs) catalyze deimination, converting arginyl to citrullyl residues. Only three PAD isotypes are detected in the epidermis where they play a crucial role, targeting filaggrin, a key actor for the tissue hydration and barrier functions. Their expression and activation depends on the keratinocyte differentiation state. To(More)
Peptidylarginine deiminase (PAD, EC enzyme catalyzes the conversion of arginine residues to citrulline residues in the presence of calcium ion, which is an elaborate post-translational modification on the target protein. Recently, five isoforms have been identified in mammals. Among them, three isoforms (type I, II, III) are expressed in the human(More)
Long-range cis elements are critical regulators of transcription, particularly for clustered paralogous genes. Such are the five PADI genes in 1p35-36 encoding peptidylarginine deiminases, which catalyze deimination, a Ca2+-dependent post-translational modification. Deimination has been implicated in the pathophysiology of severe human diseases such as(More)
Transcription control at a distance is a critical mechanism, particularly for contiguous genes. The peptidylarginine deiminases (PADs) catalyse the conversion of protein-bound arginine into citrulline (deimination), a critical reaction in the pathophysiology of multiple sclerosis, Alzheimer's disease and rheumatoid arthritis, and in the metabolism of the(More)
Human peptidylarginine deiminase type III gene (PADI3) encodes a crucial post-translational modification enzyme that converts protein-bound arginine residues into citrulline residues. Its expression is restricted to a few cell types, including keratinocytes in the granular layer of the epidermis and in the inner root sheath of hair follicles. In these(More)
Peptidylarginine deiminases (PADs) catalyse a post-translational modification of proteins through the conversion of arginine residues into citrullines. The existence of four isoforms of PAD (types I, II, III and IV) encoded by four different genes, which are distinct in their substrate specificities and tissue-specific expression, was reported in rodents.(More)
Post-translational conversion of arginine to citrulline residues is catalyzed by peptidylarginine deiminases (PAD). Although the existence of five isoforms of PAD has been reported in rodents and humans, their tissue distribution, substrate specificity, and physiological function have yet to be explored. In the epidermis, deimination of filaggrin and(More)