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A major determinant of Vibrio cholerae pathogenicity, the cholera enterotoxin, is encoded in the genome of an integrated phage, CTXvarphi. CTXvarphi integration depends on two host-encoded tyrosine recombinases, XerC and XerD. It occurs at dif1, a 28 bp site on V. cholerae chromosome 1 normally used by XerCD for chromosome dimer resolution. The replicative(More)
Lateral DNA transfer--the movement of genetic traits between bacteria--has a profound impact on genomic evolution and speciation. The efficiency with which bacteria incorporate genetic information reflects their capacity to adapt to changing environmental conditions. Integron integrases are proteins that mediate site-specific DNA recombination between a(More)
Integrons play a major role in the dissemination of antibiotic resistance genes among Gram-negative pathogens. Integron gene cassettes form circular intermediates carrying a recombination site, attC, and insert into an integron platform at a second site, attI, in a reaction catalyzed by an integron-specific integrase IntI. The IntI1 integron integrase(More)
Superintegrons (SIs) and multiresistant integrons (MRIs) have two main structural differences: (i) the SI platform is sedentary, while the MRI platform is commonly associated with mobile DNA elements and (ii) the recombination sites (attC) of SI gene cassette clusters are highly homogeneous, while those of MRI cassette arrays are highly variable in length(More)
Bacterial adaptation requires large-scale regulation of gene expression. We have performed a genome-wide analysis of the Csr system, which regulates many important cellular functions. The Csr system is involved in post-transcriptional regulation, but a role in transcriptional regulation has also been suggested. Two proteins, an RNA-binding protein CsrA and(More)
RNase E is an essential endoribonuclease with a preference for RNA substrates with 5'-monophosphate ends. Primary transcripts, which have 5' triphosphate ends, are thus protected from RNase E. Their conversion to 5'-monophosphate transcripts by RppH is a prerequisite for RNase E-mediated processing and degradation. 5'-monophosphate recognition involves(More)
Bacterial transcripts each have a characteristic half-life, suggesting that the processes of RNA degradation work in an active and selective manner. Moreover, the processes are well controlled, thereby ensuring that degradation is orderly and coordinated. Throughout much of the bacterial kingdom, RNA degradation processes originate through the actions of(More)
Partition of prokaryotic DNA requires formation of specific protein-centromere complexes, but an excess of the protein can disrupt segregation. The mechanisms underlying this destabilization are unknown. We have found that destabilization by the F plasmid partition protein, SopB, of plasmids carrying the F centromere, sopC, results from the capacity of the(More)
We recently showed that cassette integration and deletion in integron platforms were occurring through unconventional site-specific recombination reactions involving only the bottom strand of attC sites. The lack of sequence conservation among attC sites led us to hypothesize that sequence-independent structural recognition determinants must exist within(More)
Site-specific recombination catalyzed by tyrosine recombinases follows a common pathway consisting of two consecutive strand exchanges. The first strand exchange generates a Holliday junction (HJ), which is resolved by a second strand exchange. In integrons, attC sites recombine as folded single-stranded substrates. Only one of the two attC site strands,(More)