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We characterized metabolic and mitogenic signaling pathways in isolated skeletal muscle from well-matched type 2 diabetic and control subjects. Time course studies of the insulin receptor, insulin receptor substrate (IRS)-1/2, and phosphatidylinositol (PI) 3-kinase revealed that signal transduction through this pathway was engaged between 4 and 40 min.(More)
We examined the effect of physiological hyperinsulinemia on insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1) tyrosine phosphorylation and phosphatidylinositol (PI) 3-kinase activity in skeletal muscle from six lean-to-moderately obese NIDDM patients and six healthy subjects. A rise in serum insulin levels from approximately 60 to approximately 650 pmol/l increased(More)
BACKGROUND Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is characterized by defects in insulin secretion and action. Impaired glucose uptake in skeletal muscle is believed to be one of the earliest features in the natural history of T2DM, although underlying mechanisms remain obscure. METHODS AND FINDINGS We combined human insulin/glucose clamp physiological studies(More)
Hypothalamic neurons expressing the long form of the leptin receptor (LRb) mediate important leptin actions. Although it has been suggested that leptin crosses the blood-brain barrier (BBB) via a specific transport system, we hypothesized the existence of a population of hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (ARC) neurons that senses leptin independently of this(More)
Complete spinal cord lesion leads to profound metabolic abnormalities and striking changes in muscle morphology. Here we assess the effects of electrically stimulated leg cycling (ESLC) on whole body insulin sensitivity, skeletal muscle glucose metabolism, and muscle fiber morphology in five tetraplegic subjects with complete C5-C7 lesions. Physical(More)
To determine whether defects in the insulin signal transduction cascade are present in skeletal muscle from prediabetic individuals, we excised biopsies from eight glucose-intolerant male first-degree relatives of patients with type 2 diabetes (IGT relatives) and nine matched control subjects before and during a euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp. IGT(More)
The adipose-derived hormone, leptin, acts via its receptor (LRb) to convey the status of body energy stores to the brain, decreasing feeding and potentiating neuroendocrine energy expenditure. The failure of high levels of leptin in most obese individuals to promote weight loss defines a state of diminished responsiveness to increased leptin, termed leptin(More)
The increasing incidence of obesity in developed nations represents an ever-growing challenge to health care by promoting diabetes and other diseases. The discovery of the hormone, leptin, a decade ago has facilitated the acquisition of new knowledge regarding the regulation of energy balance. A great deal remains to be discovered regarding the molecular(More)
Abstract Aim/hypothesis. Insulin receptor substrate (IRS) proteins play important roles in insulin action and pancreatic beta-cell function. At least four mammalian IRS molecules have been identified. Although genes and cDNAs encoding human IRS-1, IRS-2, and IRS-4 have been cloned, IRS-3 has been identified only in rodents. Thus, we have attempted to clone(More)
Type 2 (non-insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus is a progressive metabolic disorder arising from genetic and environmental factors that impair beta cell function and insulin action in peripheral tissues. We identified reduced diacylglycerol kinase delta (DGKdelta) expression and DGK activity in skeletal muscle from type 2 diabetic patients. In diabetic(More)