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We characterized metabolic and mitogenic signaling pathways in isolated skeletal muscle from well-matched type 2 diabetic and control subjects. Time course studies of the insulin receptor, insulin receptor substrate (IRS)-1/2, and phosphatidylinositol (PI) 3-kinase revealed that signal transduction through this pathway was engaged between 4 and 40 min.(More)
BACKGROUND Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is characterized by defects in insulin secretion and action. Impaired glucose uptake in skeletal muscle is believed to be one of the earliest features in the natural history of T2DM, although underlying mechanisms remain obscure. METHODS AND FINDINGS We combined human insulin/glucose clamp physiological studies(More)
The increasing incidence of obesity in developed nations represents an ever-growing challenge to health care by promoting diabetes and other diseases. The discovery of the hormone, leptin, a decade ago has facilitated the acquisition of new knowledge regarding the regulation of energy balance. A great deal remains to be discovered regarding the molecular(More)
Leptin directly suppresses the activity of orexigenic neurons in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (ARC). We examined c-Fos-like immunoreactivity (CFLIR) as a marker of ARC neuronal activity in db/db mice devoid of the signaling form of the leptin receptor (LRb) and s/s mice that express LRb(S1138) [which is defective for STAT3 (signal transducer and(More)
Hypothalamic neurons expressing the long form of the leptin receptor (LRb) mediate important leptin actions. Although it has been suggested that leptin crosses the blood-brain barrier (BBB) via a specific transport system, we hypothesized the existence of a population of hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (ARC) neurons that senses leptin independently of this(More)
Type 2 (non-insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus is a progressive metabolic disorder arising from genetic and environmental factors that impair beta cell function and insulin action in peripheral tissues. We identified reduced diacylglycerol kinase delta (DGKdelta) expression and DGK activity in skeletal muscle from type 2 diabetic patients. In diabetic(More)
The effect of metformin or rosiglitazone monotherapy versus placebo on insulin signaling and gene expression in skeletal muscle of patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes was determined. A euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp, combined with skeletal muscle biopsies and glucose uptake measurements over rested and exercised muscle, was performed before and(More)
An acute bout of exercise increases glucose uptake in skeletal muscle by an insulin-independent mechanism. In the period after exercise, insulin sensitivity to increased glucose uptake is enhanced. The molecular mechanisms underpinning this phenomenon are poorly understood but appear to involve an increased cell surface abundance of GLUT4. While increased(More)
AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a heterotrimeric complex, composed of a catalytic subunit (α) and two regulatory subunits (β and γ), which act as a metabolic sensor to regulate glucose and lipid metabolism. A mutation in the γ3 subunit (AMPKγ3(R225Q)) increases basal AMPK phosphorylation, while concomitantly reducing sensitivity to AMP. AMPKγ3(R225Q)(More)
Obesity is associated with blunted β-adrenoreceptor (β-AR)-mediated lipolysis and lipid oxidation in adipose tissue, but the mechanisms linking nutrient overload to catecholamine resistance are poorly understood. We report that targeted disruption of TGF-β superfamily receptor ALK7 alleviates diet-induced catecholamine resistance in adipose tissue, thereby(More)