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We examined the effect of physiological hyperinsulinemia on insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1) tyrosine phosphorylation and phosphatidylinositol (PI) 3-kinase activity in skeletal muscle from six lean-to-moderately obese NIDDM patients and six healthy subjects. A rise in serum insulin levels from approximately 60 to approximately 650 pmol/l increased(More)
We characterized metabolic and mitogenic signaling pathways in isolated skeletal muscle from well-matched type 2 diabetic and control subjects. Time course studies of the insulin receptor, insulin receptor substrate (IRS)-1/2, and phosphatidylinositol (PI) 3-kinase revealed that signal transduction through this pathway was engaged between 4 and 40 min.(More)
BACKGROUND Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is characterized by defects in insulin secretion and action. Impaired glucose uptake in skeletal muscle is believed to be one of the earliest features in the natural history of T2DM, although underlying mechanisms remain obscure. METHODS AND FINDINGS We combined human insulin/glucose clamp physiological studies(More)
Hypothalamic neurons expressing the long form of the leptin receptor (LRb) mediate important leptin actions. Although it has been suggested that leptin crosses the blood-brain barrier (BBB) via a specific transport system, we hypothesized the existence of a population of hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (ARC) neurons that senses leptin independently of this(More)
Complete spinal cord lesion leads to profound metabolic abnormalities and striking changes in muscle morphology. Here we assess the effects of electrically stimulated leg cycling (ESLC) on whole body insulin sensitivity, skeletal muscle glucose metabolism, and muscle fiber morphology in five tetraplegic subjects with complete C5-C7 lesions. Physical(More)
Leptin is an adipocyte-derived hormone that communicates the status of body energy stores to the brain to regulate feeding and energy balance. The inability of elevated leptin levels to adequately suppress feeding in obesity suggests attenuation of leptin action under these conditions; the activation of feedback circuits due to high leptin levels could(More)
The increasing incidence of obesity in developed nations represents an ever-growing challenge to health care by promoting diabetes and other diseases. The discovery of the hormone, leptin, a decade ago has facilitated the acquisition of new knowledge regarding the regulation of energy balance. A great deal remains to be discovered regarding the molecular(More)
Leptin directly suppresses the activity of orexigenic neurons in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (ARC). We examined c-Fos-like immunoreactivity (CFLIR) as a marker of ARC neuronal activity in db/db mice devoid of the signaling form of the leptin receptor (LRb) and s/s mice that express LRb(S1138) [which is defective for STAT3 (signal transducer and(More)
AIM/HYPOTHESIS Insulin receptor substrate (IRS) proteins play important roles in insulin action and pancreatic beta-cell function. At least four mammalian IRS molecules have been identified. Although genes and cDNAs encoding human IRS-1, IRS-2, and IRS-4 have been cloned, IRS-3 has been identified only in rodents. Thus, we have attempted to clone the human(More)
Type 2 (non-insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus is a progressive metabolic disorder arising from genetic and environmental factors that impair beta cell function and insulin action in peripheral tissues. We identified reduced diacylglycerol kinase delta (DGKdelta) expression and DGK activity in skeletal muscle from type 2 diabetic patients. In diabetic(More)