Marie Angelopoulos

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Conjugated polymers in the nondoped and doped conducting state have an array of potential applications in the microelectronics industry. Conducting polymers are effective discharge layers as well as conducting resists in electron beam lithography, find applications in metallization (electrolytic and electroless) of plated through-holes for printed circuit(More)
that Me-LPPP, in addition to MEH-PPV, is hole-limited with a Ca cathode. For conjugated polymer films, such as PAni, the improvement in quantum efficiency is due to an increase in the anode work function to 5.1 ± 0.1 eV, which results in a nearly ohmic contact. For nanoparticle monolayers, the improvement is due to an increase in the local electric field(More)
The continuing drive by the semiconductor industry to fabricate smaller structures using photolithography will soon require dimensional control at length scales comparable to the size of the polymeric molecules in the materials used to pattern them. The current technology, chemically amplified photoresists, uses a complex reaction-diffusion process to(More)
Moisture absorption in model photoresist films of poly(4-hydroxystryene) (PHOSt) and poly(tert-butoxycarboxystyrene) (PBOCSt) supported on silicon wafers was measured by X-ray and neutron reflectivity. The overall thickness change in the films upon moisture exposure was found to be dependent upon the initial film thickness. As the film becomes thinner, the(More)
As photoresist layers become thinner with shorter imaging wavelengths, interfacial structure and transport issues are increasingly important to photoresist performance. High spatial resolution interfacial measurement methods are needed both to observe processes over length scales (< 20 nm) relevant to lithographic structures and to understand fundamental(More)
With the advent of shorter wavelengths in deep UV lithography, the thickness of the photoactive polymeric films must decrease significantly. In this work we address the issue of confinement induced deviations of the physical properties for thin films of poly(hydroxystryrene) (PHS), a common lithographic polymer. Using specular X-ray reflectivity to measure(More)
of the C±N stretching mode in the QBB moiety, where Q and B denote the quinoid and benzenoid rings, respectively. The 1310 cm peak, apart from showing a red shift to 1300 cm, gains substantial intensity. Along with this, a new feature appears at 1240 cm, which is assigned to C±N stretching in the BBB moiety. We notice a small peak at 1374 cm in emeraldine(More)
The use of chemically amplified photoresists for the fabrication of sub-100 nm features will require spatial control with nanometer level resolution. To reach this goal, a detailed understanding of the complex reaction-diffusion mechanisms at these length scales is needed and will require high spatial resolution measurements. In particular, few experimental(More)
The need for a better understanding of the physicochemical properties of radiation-sensitive thin polymer coatings for lithographic applications is driven by the trend of ever-shrinking pattern dimensions and film thickness, imposed by the semiconductor industry. In this work, we address the issue of film uniformity and moisture absorption for thin and(More)