Marie A Di Berardino

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In order to determine whether differentiated somatic cells maintain genetic totipotency, nuclear transplantations from several differentiated somatic cell types into eggs and oocytes were performed previously in Rana pipiens and Xenopus laevis. The formation of postneurula embryos and tadpoles under the direction of the test nuclei demonstrated their(More)
This paper reviews the origin and development of animal cloning in metazoans starting with primitive experiments performed during the late 1880's and early 1900's, followed by nuclear transplantation in amphibians in 1952, then extended to fish and insects in the 1960's, and finally to mammals in the 1980's. Emphasis is placed on the applications of(More)
May 2002 marked the golden anniversary of the first cloned tadpoles. We celebrate this anniversary, as nuclear transplantation of frog cells into enucleated eggs became the prototype for cloning insects, fish, and mammals. We briefly review the salient results from amphibian cloning. Extension of these studies to mammalian species led to cloning adult(More)
This chapter traces the origin and progress of nuclear transfer that later became the paradigm for cloning animals. Classic studies in cytology, embryology, or genetics spanning more than five centuries that led to nuclear transfers in unicellular animals and to those in oocytes of insects, fish and amphibians are reviewed. The impetus for the development(More)
THE origin of the germ-cells has been extensively investigated in both invertebrates and vertebrates. In invertebrates it has been traced to the early cleavage of the zygote, e.g. in such forms as Ascaris megalocephala (Boveri, 1887) and Sciara (Metz, 1938). Within the vertebrate group the cases in which primordial germ-cells have been detected in cleavage(More)