Marica Toson

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We estimated between-farm transmission parameters of the highly pathogenic avian-influenza (HPAI) epidemic that struck the poultry industry of northern Italy (including turkeys, layer hens, broilers, gamebirds, and waterfowl) from December 1999 through April 2000. We estimated the average number of susceptible farms that were infected with HPAI virus by(More)
When outbreaks of avian influenza (AI) occur in poultry populations, the main goal to achieve is the control and eradication of the infection. However, quantitative information on risk factors for AI spread and efficacy of AI control measures such as vaccination in the field is limited. From 2000 to 2005, H5 and H7 low pathogenicity (LP) AI viruses caused(More)
Lesions caused by animals, in particular by dogs, are a health issue to which public opinion often reacts sensitively. To effectively manage and prevent these events, it is therefore essential to evaluate the public health impact of this phenomenon and to identify the main connected risk factors. The aim of the present survey in the Autonomous Province of(More)
Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses show different disease dynamics between virus strains and host species, and therefore epidemic field data are very valuable. This study used field data of the HPAI H7N1 epidemic which affected Northern Italy in 1999-2000. Field mortality data was back-calculated into a S-I-format to estimate the transmission(More)
Italian poultry production was affected by several outbreaks of low-pathogenicity avian influenza (LPAI) between 2000 and 2005. Intervention measures (IM), such as stamping out of infected and suspected farms, controlled marketing, restocking bans, movement restriction, and emergency vaccination, were put into force in the most affected areas of Lombardia(More)
Avian astroviruses, of the genus Avastrovirus, are recognized as being the cause of enteritis in different bird species worldwide. In particular, turkeys are very susceptible and can be severely affected by this viral agent. More recently, astroviruses were detected in diseased guinea fowl in Italy but whether or not they were the causative agents of the(More)
In 1999-2000, Italian poultry production was disrupted by an H7N1 virus subtype epidemic of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI). The objectives of the present study were to identify risk factors for infection on poultry farms located in regions that had the highest number of outbreaks (Veneto and Lombardia) and the impact of pre-emptive culling as a(More)
Viral encephalopathy and retinopathy (VER) is one of the most devastating and economically relevant diseases for marine aquaculture. The presence of betanodavirus in freshwater fish is recorded, but very little is known about VER outbreaks in marine species reared in freshwater. Our study investigated the ability of betanodavirus to cause disease in(More)
Betanodaviruses are the causative agents of a highly infectious disease of fish known as viral nervous necrosis (VNN). To date, 4 different nervous necrosis virus (NNV) genotypes have been described, but natural reassortant viruses have also been detected, which further increase viral variability. Water temperature plays an important role in determining the(More)