Marianne M Martinic

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A defining characteristic of persistent viral infections is the loss and functional inactivation of antiviral effector T cells, which prevents viral clearance. Interleukin-10 (IL-10) suppresses cellular immune responses by modulating the function of T cells and antigen-presenting cells. In this paper, we report that IL-10 production is drastically increased(More)
Induction of MHC class I genes in neurons of the central nervous system requires signals by pro-inflammatory cytokines, in particular IFN-gamma, and the blockade of electric activity, which is known to suppress induction of MHC related genes in a highly ordered, but unusual fashion [1], [2]. The present experiments explore the immunological function of(More)
There has long been conceptual and experimental support for, but also challenges to, the notion that the initial period of the immune system's development is particularly important for the establishment of tolerance to self. The display of self-antigens by thymic epithelial cells is key to inducing tolerance in the T lymphocyte compartment, a process(More)
Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) infection induces a protective CTL response consisting of gp- and nucleoprotein (NP)-specific CTL. We find that a small load of LCMV led to immunodominance of NP-CTL, whereas a large viral load resulted in dominance of gp-CTL. This is the first study describing that immunodominance is not fixed after infection with(More)
Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is the most common autoimmune disease affecting almost 20 million people worldwide. T1D is thought to be caused by autoaggressive T cells infiltrating pancreatic islets and destroying insulin-producing beta cells. Because insulin therapy, the current treatment for T1D, does not protect against all late complications and because life(More)
There is an immense load of non-pathogenic commensal bacteria in the distal small intestine and the colon of mammals. The physical barrier that prevents penetration (translocation) of these organisms into the body is a simple epithelium comprised of the single enterocyte/colonocyte cell layer with its overlying mucus. In this review, we discuss the roles of(More)
Mutations in viral genomes that affect T-cell-receptor recognition by CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes have been shown to allow viral evasion from immune surveillance during persistent viral infections. Although CD4+ T-helper cells are crucially involved in the maintenance of effective cytotoxic T-lymphocyte and neutralizing-antibody responses, their role in(More)
Infection with viruses that have the capacity to modulate or evade the immune response can result in persistence, which can lead to a variety of chronic problems including neoplasia, immunosuppression, autoimmune-like syndromes, and selective organ failure. Recently, two promising new treatment approaches that target either the inhibitory receptor(More)
Nonthymic epithelial cells were compared with thymic epithelial cells for their role in T cell repertoire selection. Tetraparental aggregation chimeras were generated from T and B cell-deficient mice (H-2(d) SCID or H-2(b) Rag-/-) and thymus-deficient nude mice (H-2(b) or H-2(d)). These tetraparental mice showed primary protective CD8(+) T cell responses,(More)
Synthetic nonmethylated oligonucleotides containing CpG dinucleotides (CpG-ODNs) have been shown to exhibit immunostimulatory activity. CpG-ODNs have the capacity to directly activate B cells, macrophages, and dendritic cells, and we show here that this is reflected by cell surface binding of oligonucleotides to these cell subsets. However, T cells are not(More)