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There is an immense load of non-pathogenic commensal bacteria in the distal small intestine and the colon of mammals. The physical barrier that prevents penetration (translocation) of these organisms into the body is a simple epithelium comprised of the single enterocyte/colonocyte cell layer with its overlying mucus. In this review, we discuss the roles of(More)
A defining characteristic of persistent viral infections is the loss and functional inactivation of antiviral effector T cells, which prevents viral clearance. Interleukin-10 (IL-10) suppresses cellular immune responses by modulating the function of T cells and antigen-presenting cells. In this paper, we report that IL-10 production is drastically increased(More)
There has long been conceptual and experimental support for, but also challenges to, the notion that the initial period of the immune system's development is particularly important for the establishment of tolerance to self. The display of self-antigens by thymic epithelial cells is key to inducing tolerance in the T lymphocyte compartment, a process(More)
Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) infection induces a protective CTL response consisting of gp- and nucleoprotein (NP)-specific CTL. We find that a small load of LCMV led to immunodominance of NP-CTL, whereas a large viral load resulted in dominance of gp-CTL. This is the first study describing that immunodominance is not fixed after infection with(More)
Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is characterized by the immune-mediated destruction of beta cells in the pancreas. Little is known about the in vivo dynamic interactions between T cells and beta cells or the kinetic behavior of other immune cell subsets in the pancreatic islets. Utilizing multiphoton microscopy we have designed a technique that allows for the(More)
Altered peptide ligands (APLs) and their antagonistic or partial agonistic character-influencing T cell activation have mainly been studied in vitro Some studies have shown APLs as a viral escape mechanism from cytotoxic CD8(+) T cell responses in vivo. However, whether infection or superinfection with a virus displaying an antagonistic T cell epitope can(More)
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