Marianne L. Gardner

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1. Healthy humans ingested the dipeptide carnosine (L-beta-alanyl-L-histidine). Their plasma levels and urinary outputs of carnosine and beta-alanine were monitored over the following 5 h. 2. Large amounts of intact carnosine (up to 14% of the ingested dose) were recovered in the urine over the 5 h after ingestion. However, carnosine was undetectable in the(More)
There is now no reasonable doubt that small quantities of intact proteins do cross the gastrointestinal tract in animals and adult humans, and that this is a physiologically normal process required for antigen sampling by subepithelial immune tissue in the gut. It is too small to be nutritionally significant in terms of gross acquisition of amino-nitrogen,(More)
Human melanocytes established in MCDB-153 culture medium do not express alpha 1-, beta 1-, beta-2 adrenoceptors without extracellular stimulation. The addition of 50 x 10-9 M norepinephrine to the medium causes a time-dependent induction of alpha-1-adrenoceptors with 4.278 receptors/melanocyte after 24 h. Under the same experimental conditions, the(More)
The structural integrities of various preparations of rat small intestine for the study of absorption in vitro have been compared after incubation or perfusion. Perfused intestines removed from anaesthetized rats, and thus never deprived of a supply of oxygen, maintain their structural integrity even after perfusion for 1 h provided that a Krebs-Henseleit(More)
1. A new technique has been developed for making serial measurements of water and solute absorption from the lumen of isolated small intestine.2. The isolated intestine is perfused in a single pass with a segmented flow of slugs of liquid separated by bubbles of oxygen-carbon dioxide mixture. Simultaneous collections are made of effluent from the lumen and(More)
1. Water absorption rates by small intestine in vitro and the incidence of diarrhoea in vivo were estimated after 5-fluorouracil was injected into rats at various times of day and night. 2. Impairment of water absorption and the incidence of diarrhoea were minimal in rats on a normal dietary regimen when the 5-fluorouracil was injected at around 02.00(More)
Measurements of villus height, crypt depth and mucosal thickness were made for each of duodenum, jejunum and ileum of rat small intestine from animals on both unrestricted and restricted feeding regimens. Contrary to a previous report, there was no evidence for consistent or synchronized diurnal variation in villus height at any region of small intestine on(More)