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CONTEXT Autoimmune thyroid diseases (AITD) comprise Graves' disease (GD) and Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT). They are characterized by loss of immunological self-tolerance and female preponderance. Theoretically, X chromosome inactivation (XCI) and resultant tissue chimerism could offer an explanation for the female predisposition to AITD. AIM Our aim was(More)
We report on a family with three stillborn males, three affected males who were small for gestational age and died within 8 months, and one male who died at age 5 years. This boy had cone-shaped teeth and oligoodontia. He had serious bacterial infections and inflammatory bowel disease. Mutations in the NF-kappaB essential modulator (NEMO) gene have recently(More)
To investigate the genetic influence on X chromosome inactivation and on age-related skewing of X inactivation, in particular, we analysed the X inactivation pattern (XIP) in peripheral blood cells from 118 young monozygotic (MZ) twin pairs (18-53 years), 82 elderly MZ twin pairs (55-94 years), 146 young dizygotic (DZ) twin pairs (20-54 years) and 112(More)
X-linked recessive myotubular myopathy (XLMTM) is a muscle disorder usually affecting newborn males. In the majority of cases, muscle weakness and hypotonia lead to a rapid demise at neonatal age. The responsible MTM1 gene is located in proximal Xq28. Heterozygous carriers are described as being asymptomatic but, in a few cases, mild facial weakness has(More)
X inactivation makes females mosaics for 2 cell populations, usually with an approximate 1:1 distribution. Skewing of this distribution in peripheral blood cells is more common among elderly women. The depletion of hematopoietic stem cells followed by random differentiation may explain the acquired skewing with age. However, an animal model suggests that(More)
Infectious salmon anaemia virus (ISAV) infects cells via the endocytic pathway and, like many other enveloped viruses, ISAV contains a receptor-destroying enzyme. We have analysed this acetylesterase activity with respect to substrate specificity, enzyme kinetics, inhibitors, temperature and pH stability. The ISAV acetylesterase was inhibited by(More)
BACKGROUND A higher frequency of skewed X chromosome inactivation has been reported in a consecutive series of young patients with breast cancer compared with controls of a similar age. OBJECTIVE To investigate the X inactivation pattern in patients with familial non-BRCA1/BRCA2 breast cancer (n = 272), BRCA1/BRCA2 germline mutations (n = 35), and(More)
X-linked myotubular myopathy is a severe congenital myopathy in males, caused by mutations in the myotubularin (MTM1) gene on chromosome Xq28. In heterozygous carriers of MTM1 mutations, clinical symptoms are usually absent or only mild. We report a 6-year-old girl presenting at birth with marked hypotonia and associated feeding and respiratory(More)
X-linked myotubular myopathy is a rare severe muscle disorder in affected male neonates. Most female carriers are free from symptoms. Skewed X inactivation has been proposed to be responsible for the affected phenotype seen in some carriers. We have compared the X inactivation patterns in blood DNA with the clinical phenotype in carriers of X-linked(More)
Development of cervical carcinomas is strongly associated with presence of human papilloma virus (HPV). Recently we found that young patients with breast cancer had a higher frequency of skewed X inactivation in peripheral blood cells, indicating an effect of X-linked genes on breast cancer development. In this study, we investigated the frequency of skewed(More)