Learn More
After the addition of glutaraldehyde (GA) to cells incubated at 3 or 37 degrees C, mesosomes were observed with increasing frequencies in freeze fractures of cells. These increases were related to the kinetics with which GA cross-linked adjacent amino acids. Upon the addition of GA, mesosomes were first observed in the periphery of freeze-fractured cells(More)
In glutaraldehyde-prefixed exponential-phase cells of Streptococcus faecalis the nucleoid is "frozen" in a dispersed configuration. Exposure of exponential-phase cells to threonine starvation or to antibiotics inhibiting protein synthesis resulted in progressive condensation of nucleoid fibrils producing an expanding central nucleoid zone or pool. The(More)
Formation of the asymmetrically located septum divides sporulating bacilli into two distinct cells: the mother cell and the prespore. The rigidifying wall material in the septum is subsequently removed by autolysis. Examination of published electron micrographs indicates that the two septal membranes then fuse to form a single membrane. Membrane fusion(More)
The development of genetic competence in Bacillus subtilis requires the synthesis of ComK, a transcription factor, which is normally produced as a culture enters the stationary phase. This synthesis is known to be regulated in part by the protein MecA. Loss-of-function mutations in mecA result in overexpression of ComK and its appearance early during(More)
Milligram amounts of mammalian ciliary axonemes were isolated from porcine tracheas. These were reactivated upon addition of ATP, indicating intact functional capability with a mean beat frequency at 37 degrees C of 8.2 Hz. Electron microscopy showed typical ultrastructure of the isolated demembranated axonemes. Electrophoresis into polyacrylamide gradient(More)
Selective inhibition of protein synthesis in Streptococcus faecalis (ATCC 9790) was accompanied by a rapid and severe inhibition of cell division and a reduction of enlargement of cellular surface area. Continued synthesis of cell wall polymers resulted in rapid thickening of the wall to an extent not seen in exponential-phase populations. Thus, the normal(More)
The temporal appearance of extracellular proteases produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa was analyzed by pH 9 and pH 4 polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) and sodium dodecyl sulfate-PAGE. Ammonium sulfate precipitates of culture supernatants from various stages of growth revealed a time-dependent increase in number and amount of proteolytically active(More)
The same tendency that causes soap bubbles to achieve a minimum surface area for the volume enclosed seems to account for many of the features of growth and division of bacteria, including both bacilli and cocci. It is only necessary to assume that growth takes place in zones and that only in these zones does the tension caused by hydrostatic pressure(More)
The shapes of many prokaryotes can be understood by the assumption that the cell wall expands in response to tension created by the osmotically derived hydrostatic pressure. Different organisms have different shapes because wall growth takes place in different regions. A previous paper (Koch et al., 1981 a) considered the simplest case of prokaryotic(More)