Marianne Garland

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Direct observational data on the development of the brains of human and nonhuman primates is on remarkably scant, and most of our understanding of primate brain development is extrapolated from findings in rodent models. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a promising tool for the noninvasive, longitudinal study of the developing primate brain. We devised a(More)
Zidovudine (azidothymidine, AZT) is used in pregnancy to reduce mother to infant transmission of HIV. Understanding the disposition of AZT in the fetus is necessary to optimize therapeutic regimens directed toward the fetus. Recent studies in primates found similar steady-state levels of the glucuronide metabolite of AZT (AZT-glu) in the fetus to those in(More)
Zidovudine (ZDV) therapy in pregnancy reduces mother-to-child transmission of HIV. The action of ZDV in the fetus is thought to be an important contributor to efficacy. Previous research in primates has demonstrated that continuous infusion of ZDV to the mother leads to sustained plasma concentrations in the fetus; however, it has not been determined what(More)
Previous work in female mice has shown that suckling stimulation is essential for the initiation of male-directed aggression during the immediate postpartum period. The present work examined the importance of this stimulus for the maintenance of aggression during lactation. Surgical excision of nipples (thelectomy) on Postpartum Day 5 accelerates the(More)
During pregnancy, exposure to nicotine and other compounds in cigarette smoke increases the risk of the sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) two- to fivefold. Serotonergic (5-HT) abnormalities are found, in infants who die of SIDS, in regions of the medulla oblongata known to modulate cardiorespiratory function. Using a baboon model, we tested the hypothesis(More)
The devastating impact of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection during pregnancy has made the pharmacologic evaluation of potentially therapeutic agents of high priority. The results presented here are the maternal pharmacokinetics from a series of experiments to delineate more clearly the complex maternal-fetal pharmacokinetics and the effects of(More)
BACKGROUND Glucuronidation by the UDP glucuronosyltransferase 1A enzymes (UGT1As) is a major pathway for elimination of drugs and endogenous substances, such as bilirubin. OBJECTIVE To identify the baboon UGT1A gene family, compare it with that of the human, and evaluate the baboon as a model for human glucuronidation. METHODS AND RESULTS Aligning the(More)
The contribution of fetal metabolism to drug disposition in pregnancy is poorly understood. With maternal administration of morphine, like many drugs, steady-state concentrations in fetal plasma are less than in maternal plasma. The contribution of fetal metabolism to this difference is unknown. Morphine was used as a model drug to test the hypothesis that(More)
To provide insight into the maturation of neural mechanisms governing fetal heart rate and rate variability, seven chronically instrumented fetal baboons were monitored under steady state conditions between 120 and 165 days gestation (term 175 d). Forty records of 24 h duration (5-7 records/fetus) were evaluated. For each fetus, heart rate decreased with(More)
The glucuronide metabolites of several widely used drugs are detected in fetal plasma after maternal drug administration. However, the disposition of these metabolites is poorly understood and clinical concerns have been raised about accumulation of active metabolites in the fetus. For this reason, morphine-3-beta-glucuronide (M3G), an active metabolite of(More)