Marianna Ofner

Learn More
To determine factors that predispose or protect healthcare workers from severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), we conducted a retrospective cohort study among 43 nurses who worked in two Toronto critical care units with SARS patients. Eight of 32 nurses who entered a SARS patient's room were infected. The probability of SARS infection was 6% per shift(More)
BACKGROUND In the 2003 Toronto SARS outbreak, SARS-CoV was transmitted in hospitals despite adherence to infection control procedures. Considerable controversy resulted regarding which procedures and behaviours were associated with the greatest risk of SARS-CoV transmission. METHODS A retrospective cohort study was conducted to identify risk factors for(More)
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE Genetic and environmental factors have been recognized to play an important role in autism. The possibility that exposure to outdoor air pollution increases the risk of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has been an emerging area of research. Herein, we present a systematic review, and meta-analysis of published epidemiological studies(More)
The objective of this study was to identify factors associated with frequent needle exchange program (NEP) attendance by injection drug users (IDUs) in Vancouver, Canada. Data were examined from a case control study of recent HIV infection. IDUs with documented HIV seroconversion after January 1, 1994 (n = 89) and seronegative controls with two documented(More)
On May 23, 2003, Toronto experienced the second phase of a severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) outbreak. Ninety cases were confirmed, and >620 potential cases were managed. More than 9,000 persons had contact with confirmed or potential case-patients; many required quarantine. The main hospital involved during the second outbreak was North York General(More)
A survey of adult patients 19 years of age and older was conducted in February 2002 in hospitals across Canada to estimate the prevalence of healthcare-associated infections (HAIs). A total of 5750 adults were surveyed; 601 of these had 667 HAIs, giving a prevalence of 10.5% infected patients and 11.6% HAIs. Urinary tract infections (UTI) were the most(More)
To identify determinants of HIV seroconversion among injection drug users (IDUs) during a period of rising prevalence, a case-control investigation was conducted. Cases were IDUs with a new positive test after 1 January 1994, and a negative test within the prior 18 months. Controls required 2 negative tests during the same period. Subjects completed a(More)
Despite the fact that needle exchange was introduced in Vancouver as early as 1988, needle sharing remains common. An analysis was conducted to identify determinants of borrowing used needles among subjects participating in a case-control study. IDUs had a documented HIV seroconversion after 1 January, 1994 (n = 89), or repeatedly tested HIV-seronegative(More)
The healthcare setting was important in the early spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) in both Toronto and Taiwan. Healthcare workers, patients, and visitors were at increased risk for infection. Nonetheless, the ability of individual SARS patients to transmit disease was quite variable. Unrecognized SARS case-patients were a primary source of(More)
BACKGROUND Although secondary infections are recognized as a cause of morbidity and mortality in seasonal influenza, their frequency, characteristics, and associated clinical outcomes in 2009 influenza A(H1N1) (A[H1N1])-related critical illness are unknown. METHODS In a prospective cohort of adult patients admitted to Canadian ICUs with influenza A(H1N1)(More)