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BACKGROUND Cultured sensory neurons are a common experimental model to elucidate the molecular mechanisms of pain transduction typically involving activation of ATP-sensitive P2X or capsaicin-sensitive TRPV1 receptors. This applies also to trigeminal ganglion neurons that convey pain inputs from head tissues. Little is, however, known about the plasticity(More)
As auxiliary subunits of voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels, the α2δ proteins modulate membrane trafficking of the channels and their localization to specific presynaptic sites. Following nerve injury, upregulation of the α2δ-1 subunit in sensory dorsal root ganglion neurons contributes to the generation of chronic pain states; however, very little is known(More)
The molecular mechanisms of migraine pain are incompletely understood, although migraine mediators such as NGF and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) are believed to play an algogenic role. Although NGF block is proposed as a novel analgesic approach, its consequences on nociceptive purinergic P2X receptors of trigeminal ganglion neurons remain unknown.(More)
Recent evidence indicates a key role for the neuropeptide calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) in migraine pain, as demonstrated by the strong analgesic action of CGRP receptor antagonists, although the mechanisms of this effect remain unclear. Most trigeminal nociceptive neurons releasing CGRP also express ATP-activated purinergic P2X3 receptors to(More)
On nociceptive neurons, one important mechanism to generate pain signals is the activation of P2X(3) receptors, which are membrane proteins gated by extracellular ATP. In the presence of the agonist, P2X(3) receptors rapidly desensitize and then recover slowly. One unique property of P2X(3) receptors is the recovery acceleration by extracellular Ca(2+) that(More)
On sensory neurons, sensitization of P2X(3) receptors gated by extracellular ATP contributes to chronic pain. We explored the possibility that receptor sensitization may arise from down-regulation of an intracellular signal negatively controlling receptor function. In view of the structural modeling between the Src region phosphorylated by the C-terminal(More)
The accessory α(2)δ subunits of voltage-gated calcium channels are membrane-anchored proteins, which are highly glycosylated, possess multiple disulfide bonds, and are post-translationally cleaved into α(2) and δ. All α(2)δ subunits have a C-terminal hydrophobic, potentially trans-membrane domain and were described as type I transmembrane proteins, but we(More)
Episodic ataxia 2 (EA2) is an autosomal dominant disorder caused by mutations in the gene CACNA1A that encodes the pore-forming CaV2.1 calcium channel subunit. The majority of EA2 mutations reported so far are nonsense or deletion/insertion mutations predicted to form truncated proteins. Heterologous expression of wild-type CaV2.1, together with truncated(More)
Calcium signaling resulting from depolarization of neurons can trigger changes in transcription, and this response has been called excitation-transcription (E-T) coupling. In neurons, voltage-gated and ligand-gated calcium-permeable channels contribute to the increase in intracellular calcium. It appears that calcium signals mediated by specific(More)
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