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This review of the CNS effects of the neurohypophyseal hormones and related neuropeptides discusses recent data illustrating the significance of these principles in brain function, synthesis, distribution, in particular in extrahypothalamic brain structures, binding sites, and signal transduction. Binding sites for vasopressin of the vascular V1a type have(More)
This review summarizes the recent findings on the localization of somatostatin (SRIF)-related peptides in local circuit interneurons and long projection neurons. These differential locations are discussed in relation to the multiple roles of SRIF 14 and SRIF 28 in neuroendocrine and autonomic regulation. The coexistence of SRIF with other neuropeptides and(More)
Testosterone alters the expression of proopiomelanocortin (POMC) mRNA in the neurons of the arcuate nucleus. While observations suggest that both estrogen and androgen receptors (AR) can mediate this action, only a negligible number of POMC neurons has previously been shown to contain estrogen receptor (ER)-alpha. To determine whether the putative action of(More)
The regulation of growth hormone (GH) secretion involves hypothalamic somatostatin and its specific receptors (sst1-sst5). sst1 is highly expressed in the arcuate nucleus (AN), and several data suggest that sst1 receptors are preferentially involved in the somatotropic hypothalamic network. Neuropeptide Y (NPY)-containing neurons function as direct(More)
The contribution of the lateral hypothalamic/perifornical (LH/PFx) area in mediating central effects of corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) on cardiovascular and behavioral activity was assessed by monitoring blood pressure, heart rate and behavioral responses for a 45-min period after injections of various doses of CRF into the LH/PFx region or the(More)
Somatostatin receptors were visualized by [125I]-Tyr0-DTrp8-somatostatin radioautography on 35% of arcuate neurons containing proopiomelanocortin (POMC) mRNA, as identified by in situ hybridization using a [35S] labelled riboprobe on 5 microm-thick consecutive sections. Furthermore, double immunohistochemical staining revealed contacts of beta-endorphin or(More)
The area subpostrema (ASP) is a V-shaped area, ventral and ventrolateral to the area postrema. It constitutes the upper border zone of the commissural portion of the nucleus of the solitary tract. The ASP is considered as a morphological and functional key area for the medullary autonomic center. The capillaries here, in contrast to the capillaries of the(More)
Keratoconus (KC) is the most common primary corneal ectatic disease which has considerable importance in public health. Corneal collagen crosslinking (CXL) is a procedure to mitigate progression of KC and reduce demand for corneal transplantation. Although studies have proven the efficacy of CXL regarding corneal shape, none have investigated the effects of(More)
Somatostatin binding sites have been localized and quantified in the sheep brain using 125I-Tyr0-DTrp8-somatostatin, by quantitative high resolution light microscopic autoradiography. Sections were analyzed by densitometry on radioautographic film, and subsequently on slides coated with photoemulsion. Specific somatostatin binding sites were concentrated in(More)
A combined retrograde tracing (wheat germ agglutinin-horseradish peroxidase-gold complex)-immunohistochemical technique was used to identify the origin of growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH)-immunoreactive (ir), beta-endorphin-ir, galanin (GAL)-ir and somatostatin (SRIH)-ir terminals in the hypothalamic periventricular nucleus, which contains all the(More)