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This paper addresses, what determines that experienced forager honeybees return to places where they have previously exploited nectar. Although there was already some evidence that dance and trophallaxis can cause bees to return to feed, the fraction of unemployed foragers that follow dance or receive food from employed foragers before revisiting the feeder(More)
Early reports indicate that trophallaxis, i.e. the exchange of liquid food by mouth, may allow honeybees to assign nectar odours with predictive values to anticipate biological meaningful reward stimuli. Nevertheless, this type of learning has not been addressed directly. In the present study, pairs of animals were isolated to induce trophallaxis under(More)
The aim of this study was to test whether honeybees develop reward expectations. In our experiment, bees first learned to associate colors with a sugar reward in a setting closely resembling a natural foraging situation. We then evaluated whether and how the sequence of the animals' experiences with different reward magnitudes changed their later behavior(More)
We report a hitherto unknown form of side-specific learning in honeybees. We trained bees individually by coupling gustatory and mechanical stimulation of each antenna with either increasing or decreasing volumes of sucrose solution offered to the animal's proboscis along successive learning trials. Next, we examined their proboscis extension response (PER)(More)
Apis mellifera foragers perform waggle dances to communicate the presence of highly desirable nectar sources to their forager-mates. Each waggle dance consists of several waggle-runs (straight movements of the dancer closely aligned on the comb surface) that carry spatial information that the dance followers can use to locate the food source being(More)
We asked whether and how a sequence of a honeybee's experience with different reward magnitudes changes its subsequent unconditioned proboscis extension response (PER) to sucrose stimulation of the antennae, 24 hours after training, in the absence of reward, and under otherwise similar circumstances. We found that the bees that had experienced an increasing(More)
Early studies indicate that Apis mellifera bees learn nectar odours within their colonies. This form of olfactory learning, however, has not been analysed by measuring well-quantifiable learning performances and the question remains whether it constitutes a 'robust' form of learning. Hence, we asked whether bees acquire long-term olfactory memories within(More)
The study of expectations of reward helps to understand rules controlling goal-directed behavior as well as decision making and planning. I shall review a series of recent studies focusing on how the food gathering behavior of honeybees depends upon reward expectations. These studies document that free-flying honeybees develop long-term expectations of(More)
Keywords: Apis mellifera dance communication honeybee mechanosensory input tactile stimulus waggle dance The waggle dance of honeybees, Apis mellifera, is one of the most remarkable communication systems of the animal kingdom. In this study, we focused on a major gap in the understanding of this striking behaviour: the question of the sensory modality by(More)
In this study, we asked whether honeybees learn the sign and magnitude of variations in the level of reward. We designed an experiment in which bees first had to forage on a three-flower patch offering variable reward levels, and then search for food at the site in the absence of reward and after a long foraging pause. At the time of training, we presented(More)