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2003 Optimal shape design of aerodynamic configurations is a challenging problem due to the nonlinear effects of complex flow features such as shock waves, boundary layers, and separation. A Newton–Krylov algorithm is presented for aerodynamic design using gradient-based numerical optimization. The flow is governed by the two-dimensional compressible(More)
A gradient-based Newton–Krylov algorithm is presented for the aerodynamic shape optimization of single-and multi-element airfoil configurations. The flow is governed by the compressible Navier–Stokes equations in conjunction with a one-equation transport turbulence model. The preconditioned generalized minimal residual method is applied to solve the(More)
A Newton–Krylov algorithm is presented for two-dimensional Navier–Stokes aerodynamic shape optimization problems. The algorithm is applied to both the discrete-adjoint and the discrete ow-sensitivity methods for calculating the gradient of the objective function. The adjoint and ow-sensitivity equations are solved using a novel preconditioned generalized(More)
Grid convergence studies for subsonic and transonic flows over airfoils are presented in order to compare the accuracy of several spatial discretizations for the compressible Navier–Stokes equations. The discretizations include the following schemes for the inviscid fluxes: (1) second-order-accurate centered differences with third-order matrix numerical(More)
A discrete-adjoint formulation is presented for the three-dimensional Euler equations discretized on a Cartesian mesh with embedded boundaries. The solution algorithm for the adjoint and flow-sensitivity equations leverages the Runge–Kutta time-marching scheme in conjunction with the parallel multigrid method of the flow solver. The matrix-vector products(More)
1 Abstract A modular framework for aerodynamic optimization of complex geometries is developed. By working directly with a parametric CAD system, complex-geometry models are modified and tessellated in an automatic fashion. The use of a component-based Cartesian method significantly reduces the demands on the CAD system, and also provides for robust and(More)
We present a new approach for the computation of shape sensitivities using the discrete adjoint and flow-sensitivity methods on Cartesian meshes with general polyhedral cells (cut-cells) at the wall boundaries. By directly linearizing the cut-cell geometric constructors of the mesh generator, an efficient and robust computation of shape sensitivities is(More)
A modular process for performing general parametric studies about an aerodynamic configuration using a Cartesian method is described. A novel part of this process is the automatic handling of general control surfaces deflections based upon simple, user-specified inputs. The article focuses on the use of aerodynamic databases in the design process. Database(More)
A genetic algorithm is compared with a gradient-based (adjoint) algorithm in the context of several aerodynamic shape optimization problems. The examples include single-point and multipoint optimization problems, as well as the computation of a Pareto front. The results demonstrate that both algorithms converge reliably to the same optimum. Depending on the(More)