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The host interferon (IFN) response represents one of the first barriers that influenza viruses must surmount in order to establish an infection. Many advances have been made in recent years in understanding the interactions between influenza viruses and the interferon system. In this review, we summarise recent work regarding activation of the type I IFN(More)
The induction of an interferon-induced antiviral state is a powerful cellular response against viral infection that limits viral spread. Here, we show that a preexisting antiviral state inhibits the replication of influenza A viruses in human A549 cells by preventing transport of the viral genome to the nucleus and that the interferon-induced MxA protein is(More)
UNLABELLED We have examined the requirements for virus transcription and replication and thus the roles of input and progeny genomes in the generation of interferon (IFN)-inducing pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) by influenza A viruses using inhibitors of these processes. Using IFN regulatory factor 3 (IRF3) phosphorylation as a marker of(More)
UNLABELLED Influenza A viruses counteract the cellular innate immune response at several steps, including blocking RIG I-dependent activation of interferon (IFN) transcription, interferon (IFN)-dependent upregulation of IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs), and the activity of various ISG products; the multifunctional NS1 protein is responsible for most of these(More)
The NS1 protein of influenza A viruses is the dedicated viral interferon (IFN)-antagonist. Viruses lacking NS1 protein expression cannot multiply in normal cells but are viable in cells deficient in their ability to produce or respond to IFN. Here we report an unbiased mutagenesis approach to identify positions in the influenza A NS1 protein that modulate(More)
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