Marian C. Horzinek

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The classification of viruses and the assignment of names to taxa are the responsibility of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV). The activities of ICTV are governed by Statutes agreed by the Virology Division of the International Union of Microbiological Societies and are guided by an International Code [2]. This Code is revised(More)
Recent evidence suggests that the type II feline coronavirus (FCoV) strains 79-1146 and 79-1683 have arisen from a homologous RNA recombination event between FCoV type I and canine coronavirus (CCV). In both cases, the template switch apparently took place between the S and M genes, giving rise to recombinant viruses which encode a CCV-like S protein and(More)
Budding of enveloped viruses has been shown to be driven by interactions between a nucleocapsid and a proteolipid membrane. By contrast, we here describe the assembly of viral envelopes independent of a nucleocapsid. Membrane particles containing coronaviral envelope proteins were assembled in and released from animal cells co-expressing these proteins'(More)
Feline coronavirus (FCoV) persistence and evolution were studied in a closed cat-breeding facility with an endemic serotype I FCoV infection. Viral RNA was detected by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) in the feces and/or plasma of 36 of 42 cats (86%) tested. Of 5 cats, identified as FCoV shedders during the initial survey, 4 had(More)
Toroviruses (family Coronaviridae, order Nidovirales) are enveloped, positive-stranded RNA viruses that have been implicated in enteric disease in cattle and possibly in humans. Despite their potential veterinary and clinical relevance, little is known about torovirus epidemiology and molecular genetics. Here, we present the first study into the diversity(More)
A nested reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-nPCR) was developed for the detection of feline coronavirus (FCoV) RNA in the feces, tissues, and body fluids of infected cats. The RT-nPCR was targeted to the highly conserved 3'-untranslated region of the viral genome and will detect most, if not all, feline coronaviruses in the field. With the RT-nPCR, FCoV RNA was(More)
The genomic organization at the 3' end of canine coronavirus (CCV) and feline enteric coronavirus (FECV) was determined by sequence analysis and compared to that of feline infectious peritonitis virus (FIPV) and transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) of swine. Comparison of the latter two has previously revealed an extra open reading frame (ORF) at the(More)
In a coimmunoprecipitation assay with monospecific antisera, the two major envelope proteins GL and M of equine arteritis virus were found to occur in heteromeric complexes in virions and infected cells. While the GL protein associated with M rapidly and efficiently, newly synthesized M protein was incorporated into complexes at a slower rate, which implies(More)
A porcine torovirus (PoTV) was identified and characterized; it is a novel member of the genus Torovirus (family Coronaviridae, order Nidovirales), closely related to but clearly distinct from the already recognized equine torovirus (ETV) and bovine torovirus (BoTV) representatives. Immunoelectron microscopy of feces from piglets revealed elongated, 120- by(More)
The sequences of the peplomeric S1 protein of four serologically distinct strains of the infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), an avian coronavirus, have been determined. The S1 protein is thought to contain the serotype-specific neutralization epitopes and to be the main target of antigenic variation. An alignment with sequences of three strains published(More)