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Ribosomal S6 kinases (RSKs) are serine/threonine kinases activated by mitogenic signals through the Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases/Extracellular Signal-Regulated Kinases (MAPK/ERK). RSKs contain two heterologous complete protein kinase domains. Phosphorylation by ERK of the C-terminal kinase domain allows activation of the N-terminal kinase domain, which(More)
Coffin-Lowry syndrome (CLS) is characterized by cognitive impairment, characteristic facial and digital findings and skeletal anomalies. The gene implicated in CLS encodes RSK2, a serine/threonine kinase acting in the Ras/MAPK signalling pathway. In humans, RSK2 belongs to a family of four highly homologous proteins (RSK1-RSK4), encoded by distinct genes.(More)
RSK2 is a growth factor-regulated serine-threonine protein kinase, acting in the Ras-Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway. Mutations in the RSK2 gene (RPS6KA3) on chromosome Xp22.2, have been found to cause Coffin-Lowry syndrome (CLS), an X-linked disorder characterized by psychomotor retardation, characteristic facial and digital(More)
Mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells remain "pluripotent" in vitro in the continuous presence of leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF). In the absence of LIF, ES cells are irreversibly committed to differentiate into various lineages. In this study we have set up an in vitro assay based on the anti-apoptotic activity of LIF to distinguish pluripotent from(More)
Coffin-Lowry syndrome (CLS) is a syndromic form of X-linked mental retardation that is characterized, in male patients, by psychomotor and growth retardation and various skeletal anomalies. Typical facial changes and specific clinical and radiological hand aspects exhibited by patients are essential clues for the diagnosis. CLS is caused by mutations in a(More)
Calcium (Ca2+) is a ubiquitous second messenger which promotes cell responses through transient changes in intracellular concentrations. The prominent role of Ca2+ in cell physiology is mediated by a whole set of proteins constituting a Ca2+-signalling toolkit involved in Ca2+-signal generation, deciphering and arrest. The different Ca2+-signalosomes(More)
Glioblastomas (GBMs) are highly aggressive, invasive brain tumors with bad prognosis and unmet medical need. These tumors are heterogeneous being constituted by a variety of cells in different states of differentiation. Among these, cells endowed with stem properties, tumor initiating/propagating properties and particularly resistant to chemo- and(More)
Calmodulin (CaM) is a ubiquitous Ca(2+) sensor regulating many biochemical processes in eukaryotic cells. Its interaction with a great variety of different target proteins has led to the fundamental question of its mechanism of action. CaM exhibits four "EF hand" type Ca(2+) binding sites. One way to explain CaM functioning is to consider that the protein(More)
Cells with stem-like properties, tumorigenic potential, and treatment-resistant phenotypes have been identified in many human malignancies. Based on the properties they share with nonneoplastic stem cells or their ability to initiate and propagate tumors in vivo, such cells were designated as cancer stem (stem-like) or tumor initiating/propagating cells.(More)