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The thiamin diphosphate (ThDP)-dependent bio-synthetic enzyme acetohydroxyacid synthase (AHAS) catalyzes decarboxylation of pyruvate and specific condensation of the resulting ThDP-bound two-carbon intermediate, hydroxyethyl-ThDP anion/enamine (HEThDP(-)), with a second ketoacid, to form acetolactate or acetohydroxybutyrate. Whereas the mechanism of(More)
The separately cloned large and small subunits of AHAS isozyme III from Escherichia coli have been isolated and purified. The essentially pure small subunit (17 kDa ilvH product) was obtained by a procedure exploiting its low solubility. The large, catalytic subunit (62 kDa ilvI product) was isolated by standard techniques, to > or = 95% purity. The large(More)
Acetohydroxyacid synthases (AHASs) are biosynthetic thiamin diphosphate- (ThDP) and FAD-dependent enzymes. They are homologous to pyruvate oxidase and other members of a family of ThDP-dependent enzymes which catalyze reactions in which the first step is decarboxylation of a 2-ketoacid. AHAS catalyzes the condensation of the 2-carbon moiety, derived from(More)
Acetohydroxy acid synthase (AHAS) is a thiamin diphosphate-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the condensation of pyruvate with either another pyruvate molecule (product acetolactate) or 2-ketobutyrate (product acetohydroxybutyrate) as the first common step in the biosynthesis of branched-chain amino acids in plants, bacteria, algae, and fungi. AHAS isozyme II(More)
Valine inhibition of acetohydroxyacid synthase (AHAS) plays an important role in regulation of biosynthesis of branched-chain amino acids in bacteria. Bacterial AHASs are composed of separate catalytic and regulatory subunits; while the catalytic subunits appear to be homologous with several other thiamin diphosphate-dependent enzymes, there has been no(More)
The enzyme acetohydroxyacid synthase (AHAS) catalyses the first common step in the biosynthesis of the three branched-chain amino acids. Enzymes in the AHAS family generally consist of regulatory and catalytic subunits. Here, we describe the first crystal structure of an AHAS regulatory subunit, the ilvH polypeptide, determined at a resolution of 1.75 A.(More)
We have previously proposed a model for the fold of the N-terminal domain of the small, regulatory subunit (SSU) of acetohydroxyacid synthase isozyme III. The fold is an alpha-beta sandwich with betaalphabetabetaalphabeta topology, structurally homologous to the C-terminal regulatory domain of 3-phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase. We suggested that the(More)
Thiamine diphosphate (ThDP), a derivative of vitamin B1, is an enzymatic cofactor whose special chemical properties allow it to play critical mechanistic roles in a number of essential metabolic enzymes. It has been assumed that all ThDP-dependent enzymes exploit a polar interaction between a strictly conserved glutamate and the N1' of the ThDP moiety. The(More)
The thiamin diphosphate (ThDP)-dependent enzyme acetohydroxyacid synthase (AHAS) catalyzes the first common step in branched-chain amino acid biosynthesis. By specific ligation of pyruvate with the alternative acceptor substrates 2-ketobutyrate and pyruvate, AHAS controls the flux through this branch point and determines the relative rates of synthesis of(More)
Acetohydroxy acid synthase I appears to be the most effective of the AHAS isozymes found in Escherichia coli in the chiral synthesis of phenylacetyl carbinol from pyruvate and benzaldehyde. We report here the exploration of a range of aldehydes as substrates for AHAS I and demonstrate that the enzyme can accept a wide variety of substituted benzaldehydes,(More)