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Emotional stress provokes a stereotyped pattern of autonomic and endocrine changes that is highly conserved across diverse mammalian species. Nearly 50 years ago, a specific region of the hypothalamus, the hypothalamic defense area, was defined by the discovery that electrical stimulation in this area evoked changes that replicated this pattern. Attention(More)
Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) acts in the preoptic area (POA) of the mammalian hypothalamus to increase body temperature and heart rate. Chemical stimulation of the dorsomedial hypothalamus (DMH), a region richly innervated by neurons in the POA, evokes sympathetically-mediated increases in heart rate and body temperature. We tested the hypothesis that neurons in(More)
Studies in anesthetized rats have implicated GABAA receptors in the region of the medullary raphe pallidus (RP) at the level of the facial nucleus in sympathetic nervous regulation of both heart rate and thermoregulatory mechanisms. Therefore, we examined the effect of microinjection of muscimol, a GABAA receptor agonist, and of bicuculline methiodide(More)
The popular drug of abuse 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) has complex interactions with thermoregulatory systems, resulting in either hyperthermia or hypothermia. MDMA induces hypothermia when given to animals housed at a low ambient temperature. In this study we report that MDMA (7.5 mg/kg i.p.) given at normal ambient temperatures of 24 to 25(More)
Disinhibition of neurons in the dorsomedial hypothalamus (DMH) by microinjection of the GABA(A) receptor antagonist bicuculline methiodide (BMI) elicits a range of autonomic and endocrine changes resembling those seen in experimental paradigms for emotional stress. Stress in rats is also known to provoke increases in body temperature resulting in part from(More)
Activation of neurons in the dorsomedial hypothalamus (DMH) appears to play an important role in signaling the excitation of brain regions responsible for experimental fever and for many of the physiological and behavioral changes seen in experimental stress or anxiety in rats. Here, we examined the effect of disinhibition of the DMH by unilateral(More)
Neurons in the rostral raphe pallidus (rRP) have been proposed to mediate experimental stress-induced tachycardia and fever in rats, and projections from the dorsomedial hypothalamus (DMH) may signal their activation in these settings. Thus, we examined c-fos expression evoked by air jet/restraint stress and restraint stress or by systemic administration of(More)
Sympathetically mediated tachycardia is a characteristic feature of the physiological response to emotional or psychological stress in mammals. Activation of neurons in the region of the dorsomedial hypothalamus appears to play a key role in the integration of this response. Tachycardia evoked by chemical stimulation of the dorsomedial hypothalamus can be(More)
Our past results provide considerable evidence that activation of neurons somewhere in the region of the dorsomedial hypothalamus (DMH) plays a key role in the generation of many of the effects typically seen in "emotional" stress in rats, including activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, the neuroendocrine hallmark of the generalized(More)
The preoptic area (POA) is thought to play an important role in thermoregulation and fever. Local application of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) to this region elicits increases in core body temperature, heart rate, and plasma levels of adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH). Similar effects on body temperature and heart rate have also been reported after local(More)