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Desensitization of ionotropic glutamate receptors (GluRs), specifically the AMPA receptor subtype, shapes the postsynaptic response at certain synapses in the brain. All known mechanisms that alter desensitization, either pharmacological or mutational, are associated with the ligand-binding domain. Here we report that substitution of a conserved positively(More)
N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor responses were recorded from acutely isolated rat hippocampal neurones using the whole-cell patch-clamp technique. A rapid perfusion system was used to study the voltage-dependent block of NMDA channels by Mg2+, amantadine (AM) and N-2-(adamantyl)-hexamethylenimine (A-7). Mg2+, AM and A-7-induced stationary blockade of(More)
N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) are ligand-gated ion channels that contribute to fundamental physiological processes such as learning and memory and, when dysfunctional, to pathophysiological conditions such as neurodegenerative diseases, stroke, and mental illness. NMDARs are obligate heteromultimers typically composed of NR1 and NR2 subunits with(More)
The basic structural features of channel gating in glutamate receptors (GluRs) remain unknown. Here we used covalent modification of substituted cysteines and fast agonist application to study the contribution of the M3 segment in AMPA receptor GluR-A subunits to channel structure and gating. The pattern of accessibility of substituted cysteines to(More)
The ligand binding domain of glutamate receptors (GluRs) has 2-fold rotational symmetry. The structure including the symmetry of the GluR ion channel remains undefined. Here we used substituted cysteines in the pore-lining M3 segment of the AMPAR GluR-A subunit and various cysteine-reactive agents to study the structure of the channel during gating. We find(More)
The M2 loop and the M3 segment are the major pore-lining domains in the GluR channel. These domains determine ion permeation and channel block processes and are extensively involved in gating. To study the distribution of the membrane electric potential across the GluR channel pore, we recorded from alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-proprionic acid(More)
Acutely isolated rat hippocampal neurons were voltage-clamped in the whole-cell configuration. The currents through N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) channels were elicited by fast application of aspartate in a Mg(2+)-free 3 microM glycine-containing solution. Eosine, known as a potent reversible inhibitor of the plasma membrane Ca(2+) pump, proved to be able to(More)
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