Maria Tobar

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BACKGROUND Hypertonic saline (HS) and pentoxifylline (PTX) have been shown to modulate polymorphonuclear neutrophil (PMN) functions after shock and sepsis. We hypothesized that a combination of HS and PTX (HSPTX) would down-regulate PMN functions and inflammatory mediator synthesis more effectively than each alone, possibly by acting at different steps of(More)
BACKGROUND Acute endotoxemia is characterized by an enhanced inflammatory response. Pentoxifylline (PTX), a phosphodiesterase inhibitor, has been shown to decrease TNF-alpha levels and to down-regulate neutrophil activation, likely because of increases in intracellular cyclic AMP. Its effects on lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced lung injury, more(More)
BACKGROUND In sepsis, activation of inflammatory cells and excessive production of proinflammatory cytokines leads to tissue injury, multiple organ failure, and death. We postulated that attenuation but not complete abrogation of hyperinflammation is of clinical benefit in sepsis. Because pentoxifylline (PTX) is known to decrease tumor necrosis factor(More)
BACKGROUND Endotoxemia is accompanied by pro-inflammatory cytokine production, generation of reactive oxygen species, and end-organ injury. Pentoxifylline (PTX), a methylxanthine derivative and phosphodiesterase inhibitor, is known for its anti-inflammatory properties, including down-regulation of interleukin (IL)-6 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha(More)
BACKGROUND Excessive production of reactive oxygen species by PMN is associated with tissue damage during inflammation. LPS interacts with the cell surface receptor CD14, which generates transmembrane signals through Toll-like protein 4 leading to mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) p38 activation, cytokine synthesis, PMN beta2-integrin expression and(More)
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