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Repeated episodes of ischemia followed by reperfusion, commonly referred to as ischemic preconditioning (IPC), represent an endogenous protective mechanism that delays cell injury. IPC also increases blood flow and improves endothelial function. We hypothesize that IPC will improve physical exercise performance and maximal oxygen consumption. The purpose of(More)
Selected contractile properties and fatigability of the quadriceps muscle were studied in seven spinal cord-injured (SCI) and 13 able-bodied control (control) individuals. The SCI muscles demonstrated faster rates of contraction and relaxation than did control muscles and extremely large force oscillation amplitudes in the 10-Hz signal (65 +/- 22% in SCI(More)
The effects of inactivity and exercise training on established and novel cardiovascular risk factors are relatively modest and do not account for the impact of inactivity and exercise on vascular risk. We examine evidence that inactivity and exercise have direct effects on both vasculature function and structure in humans. Physical deconditioning is(More)
The Journal of Applied Physiology (ISSN-8750-7587) is published online twice monthly and bound once in print monthly (two volumes per year) by the American Physiological Society, 9650 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD 20814-3991 and online at www.jap.org (ISSN 1522-1601). Subscription Prices (postpaid). For institutional print and online pricing, please see The(More)
Individuals with a spinal cord injury (SCI), especially with tetraplegia, experience poor sleep quality, and this may be related to impaired control of circadian rhythmicity. Here, we examined the evening onset of melatonin secretion, an important hormone for the initiation of sleep, in people with a complete cervical (tetraplegia) and thoracic (paraplegia)(More)
BACKGROUND The Body Mass Index (BMI) and Waist Circumference (WC) are well-used anthropometric predictors for cardiovascular diseases (CVD), but their validity is regularly questioned. Recently, A Body Shape Index (ABSI) and Body Roundness Index (BRI) were introduced as alternative anthropometric indices that may better reflect health status. OBJECTIVE(More)
The purpose of this study was to examine mechanical efficiency (ME) and physiological responses during asynchronous (the pedal arms oriented in opposing directions) arm-cranking exercise (AACE) and compare these responses to those obtained during synchronous (the pedal arms oriented in the same direction) arm-cranking exercise (SACE). Ten male subjects(More)
A spinal cord injury usually leads to an increase in contractile speed and fatigability of the paralysed quadriceps muscles, which is probably due to an increased expression of fast myosin heavy chain (MHC) isoforms and reduced oxidative capacity. Sometimes, however, fatigue resistance is maintained in these muscles and also contractile speed is slower than(More)
Muscle denervation is accompanied by atrophy and a decline in oxidative capacity. We investigated whether the time course of adaptations following denervation of the soleus muscle differs in adult (5 months old) and older adult (25 months old) rats. We denervated the soleus muscle of the left leg, while the right leg served as an internal control. Two weeks(More)
This study assessed the reproducibility of electrically evoked, isometric quadriceps contractile properties in eight people with spinal cord injury (SCI) and eight able-bodied (AB) individuals. Over all, the pooled coefficients of variation (CVps) in the SCI group were significantly lower (ranging from 0.03 to 0.15) than in the AB group (ranging from 0.08(More)