Maria T. E. Hopman

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Physical inactivity or deconditioning is an independent risk factor for atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease. In contrast to exercise, the vascular changes that occur as a result of deconditioning have not been characterized. We used 4 wk of unilateral lower limb suspension (ULLS) to study arterial and venous adaptations to deconditioning. In contrast(More)
Repeated episodes of ischemia followed by reperfusion, commonly referred to as ischemic preconditioning (IPC), represent an endogenous protective mechanism that delays cell injury. IPC also increases blood flow and improves endothelial function. We hypothesize that IPC will improve physical exercise performance and maximal oxygen consumption. The purpose of(More)
Deconditioning is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. The physiology of vascular adaptation to deconditioning has not been elucidated. The purpose of the present study was to assess the effects of bed rest deconditioning on vascular dimension and function of leg conduit arteries. In addition, the effectiveness of resistive vibration exercise as a(More)
INTRODUCTION/PURPOSE Cycling is associated with a reproducible systolic anterograde and diastolic retrograde flow pattern in the brachial artery (BA) of the inactive upper limb, which results in endothelial nitric oxide (NO) release. The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of different types and intensities of lower limb exercise on the BA flow(More)
Deconditioning is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Exercise reduces this risk, possibly by improving the vascular endothelial nitric oxide (NO) pathway. The effect of deconditioning on the NO pathway is largely unknown. This study was designed to assess baseline NO availability in the leg vascular bed after extreme, long-term deconditioning (spinal(More)
AIM Because age-related changes in the large conduit arteries (increased wall thickness, and attenuated arterial compliance and endothelial function) are associated with cardiovascular pathology, prevention is of paramount importance. The effects of endurance training (i.e. walking or cycling) in older humans are assessed in cross-sectional studies,(More)
Chronic exposure to hypoxia is associated with muscle atrophy (i.e., a reduction in muscle fiber cross-sectional area), reduced oxidative capacity, and capillary growth. It is controversial whether these changes are muscle and fiber type specific. We hypothesized that different regions of the same muscle would also respond differently to chronic hypoxia. To(More)
Physical inactivity is associated with an increase in cardiovascular risk that cannot be fully explained by traditional or novel risk factors. Inactivity is also associated with changes in hemodynamic stimuli, which exert direct effects on the vasculature leading to remodeling and a proatherogenic phenotype. In this review, we synthesize and summarize in(More)
BACKGROUND Exercise increases core body temperature (Tc), which is necessary to optimise physiological processes. However, excessive increase in Tc may impair performance and places participants at risk for the development of heat-related illnesses. Cooling is an effective strategy to attenuate the increase in Tc. This meta-analysis compares the effects of(More)
The purpose of this study was to examine the inability of paraplegic (P) subjects to redistribute fluid below the spinal cord lesion during arm exercise, with emphasis on the role of the sympathetic system in this redistribution failure. Fifteen male P and 15 male able-bodied [control (C)] subjects performed arm cranking exercise, and volume changes in the(More)