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Repeated episodes of ischemia followed by reperfusion, commonly referred to as ischemic preconditioning (IPC), represent an endogenous protective mechanism that delays cell injury. IPC also increases blood flow and improves endothelial function. We hypothesize that IPC will improve physical exercise performance and maximal oxygen consumption. The purpose of(More)
PURPOSE Studies investigating vascular adaptations in non-exercised areas during whole body exercise training show conflicting results. Individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI) provide a unique model to examine vascular adaptations in active tissue vs adjacent inactive areas. The purpose of this study is to assess the effects of 4 wk of voluntary arm and(More)
BACKGROUND The Body Mass Index (BMI) and Waist Circumference (WC) are well-used anthropometric predictors for cardiovascular diseases (CVD), but their validity is regularly questioned. Recently, A Body Shape Index (ABSI) and Body Roundness Index (BRI) were introduced as alternative anthropometric indices that may better reflect health status. OBJECTIVE(More)
AIM Peripheral muscle dysfunction often occurs in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The muscle dysfunction may be caused by a loss of force-generating capacity, resulting from a loss of muscle mass, as well as by other alterations in contractile properties of skeletal muscle. METHODS The maximal isometric voluntary strength and(More)
Regional heterogeneity in wall architecture and thickness may be present between conduit arteries in the upper and lower limbs in humans. These differences in wall architecture may, in turn, influence vascular responsiveness. Folkow proposed in the 1950s that heterogeneity in wall-to-lumen ratio (W:L) could contribute to differences in vascular(More)
INTRODUCTION Physical fitness is an important prognostic factor in heart failure (HF). To improve fitness, different types of exercise have been explored, with recent focus on high-intensity interval training (HIT). We comprehensively compared effects of HIT versus continuous training (CT) in HF patients NYHA II-III on physical fitness, cardiovascular(More)
The effects of inactivity and exercise training on established and novel cardiovascular risk factors are relatively modest and do not account for the impact of inactivity and exercise on vascular risk. We examine evidence that inactivity and exercise have direct effects on both vasculature function and structure in humans. Physical deconditioning is(More)
Physical inactivity or deconditioning is an independent risk factor for atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease. In contrast to exercise, the vascular changes that occur as a result of deconditioning have not been characterized. We used 4 wk of unilateral lower limb suspension (ULLS) to study arterial and venous adaptations to deconditioning. In contrast(More)
Vasovagal syncope is usually described as a sudden and transient loss of consciousness that resolves spontaneously. Cardiocirculatory changes are well described during and before syncope. However, changes in the cerebral oxygenation are not well defined. In this study, near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) was used to assess the cerebral oxygenation directly(More)
The aim of the study was to assess endothelial function, measured by flow-mediated dilation (FMD), in an inactive extremity (leg) and chronically active extremity (arm) within one subject. Eleven male spinal cord-injured (SCI) individuals and eleven male controls (C) were included. Echo Doppler measurements were performed to measure FMD responses after 10(More)