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Referential gaze during situated language production and comprehension is tightly coupled with the unfolding speech stream (Griffin, 2001; Meyer, Sleiderink, & Levelt, 1998; Tanenhaus, Spivey-Knowlton, Eberhard, & Sedivy, 1995). In a shared environment, utterance comprehension may further be facilitated when the listener can exploit the speaker's focus of(More)
Psycholinguistic studies of situated language processing have revealed that gaze in the visual environment is tightly coupled with both spoken language comprehension and production. It has also been established that interlocutors monitor the gaze of their partners , so-called "joint attention", as a further means for facilitating mutual understanding. It is(More)
The ability to monitor the communicative success of its utterances and, if necessary, provide feedback and repair is useful for a dialog system. We show that in situated communication, eyetracking can be used to reliably and efficiently monitor the hearer's reference resolution process. An interactive system that draws on hearer gaze to provide positive or(More)
Previous research has shown that listeners exploit speaker gaze to objects in a shared scene to ground referring expressions, not only during human-human interaction, but also in human-robot interaction. This paper examines whether the benefits of such referential gaze cues are best explained by an attentional account, where gaze simply serves to direct the(More)