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The two distinct proteins encoded by the CDKN2A locus are specified by translating the common second exon in alternative reading frames. The product of the alpha transcript, p16(INK4a), is a recognized tumour suppressor that induces a G1 cell cycle arrest by inhibiting the phosphorylation of the retinoblastoma protein by the cyclin-dependent kinases, CDK4(More)
After a limited number of population doublings (PDs), cultures of normal mammalian diploid cells undergo an irreversible growth arrest known as replicative senescence [1]. As well as contributing to cellular ageing, senescence is viewed as an important mechanism of tumour suppression by preventing the emergence of immortal cell clones [2-4]. Senescent cells(More)
We have isolated the murine homologue of the human Ki-67 antigen. The Ki-67 antigen is used as a marker to assess the proliferative capacity of tumour cells; however, its cellular function is not known. The murine Ki-67 cDNA sequence (TSG126) was found to contain 13 tandem repeats, making up more than half of the total protein size. A comparison of this(More)
Sister chromatids in early mitotic cells are held together mainly by interactions between centromeres. The separation of sister chromatids at the transition between the metaphase and the anaphase stages of mitosis depends on the anaphase-promoting complex (APC), a 20S ubiquitin-ligase complex that targets proteins for destruction. A subunit of the APC,(More)
We have analyzed the expression of the murine P1 gene, the mammalian homologue of the yeast MCM3 protein, during the mitotic cell cycle. The MCM3 protein has previously been shown to be of importance for initiation of DNA replication in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We found that the murine P1 protein was present in the nuclei of mammalian cells throughout(More)
The p16INK4A cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk) inhibitor is now recognized as a major tumor suppressor that is inactivated by a variety of mechanisms in a wide range of human cancers. It is also implicated in the mechanisms underlying replicative senescence since p16INK4A RNA and protein accumulate as cells approach their proscribed limit of population(More)
The synovial sarcoma translocation t(X;18)(p11.2; q11.2) results in the fusion of the SYT gene on chromosome 18 to exon 5 of either SSX1 or SSX2 genes on chromosome X. We recently reported that the SSX4 gene is also involved in such a translocation. In the present investigation we cloned and sequenced the full-length cDNA of SYT/SSX1, SYT/SSX2 and SYT/SSX4(More)
We describe the isolation and characterization of a novel mouse gene, tsg24, which displays striking sequence similarities to the Aspergillus nidulans bimE gene. The bimE gene has been shown to be a mitotic checkpoint regulator, negatively regulating entry into mitosis in A. nidulans. The tsg24 gene was found to contain a long open reading frame of 1944(More)
Replicative senescence of human diploid fibroblasts (HDFs) is largely implemented by the cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitors p16(INK4a) and p21(CIP1). Their accumulation results in a loss of CDK2 activity, and cells arrest with the retinoblastoma protein (pRb) in its hypophosphorylated state. It has become standard practice to bypass the effects of(More)
The analysis of genes expressed in a restricted temporal and spatial manner during spermatogenesis has given insights into different gene-regulatory mechanisms active in germ cells. However, very few genes have so far been described that are predominantly active in spermatogonia and the early meiotic cell types of testis. To isolate a battery of such genes,(More)