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Reaching Out: Access to and Use of Banking Services Across Countries
The authors (1) present new indicators of banking sector penetration across 99 countries based on a survey of bank regulatory authorities, (2) show that these indicators predict household and firmExpand
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The Foundations of Financial Inclusion: Understanding Ownership and Use of Formal Accounts
Financial inclusion -- defined here as the use of formal accounts -- can bring many welfare benefits to individuals. Yet the authors know very little about the factors underpinning financialExpand
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Do Workers' Remittances Promote Financial Development?
Workers' remittances to developing countries have become the second largest type of flows after foreign direct investment. The authors use data on workers' remittance flows to 99 developing countriesExpand
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Bank Involvement with SMEs: Beyond Relationship Lending
The "conventional wisdom" in academic and policy circles argues that, while large and foreign banks are generally not interested in serving SMEs, small and niche banks have an advantage because theyExpand
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Banking Services for Everyone? Barriers to Bank Access and Use Around the World
Using information from 193 banks in 58 countries, the authors develop and analyze indicators of physical access, affordability, and eligibility barriers to deposit, loan, and payment services. TheyExpand
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Bank Financing for SMEs around the World: Drivers, Obstacles, Business Models, and Lending Practices
Using data from a survey of 91 banks in 45 countries, the authors characterize bank financing to small and medium enterprises (SMEs) around the world. They find that banks perceive the SME segment toExpand
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Foreign Bank Entry: Experience, Implications for Developing Countries, and Agenda for Further Research
In recent years foreign banks have expanded their presence significantly in several developing economies. In Argentina and Chile in Latin America and in the Czech Republic, Hungary and Poland inExpand
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Remittances and Banking Sector Breadth and Depth: Evidence from Mexico
Despite the rising volume of remittances flowing to developing countries, their impact on banking sector breadth and depth in recipient countries has been largely unexplored. The authors examine thisExpand
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How Banks Go Abroad: Branches or Subsidiaries?
The authors examine the factors that influence banks' type of organizational form when operating in foreign markets using an original database of the branches and subsidiaries in Latin America andExpand
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Bank Ownership Type and Banking Relationships
The authors formulate and test hypotheses about the role of bank ownership types-foreign, state-owned, and private domestic banks-in banking relationships, using data from India. The empiricalExpand
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