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Until recently, members of the monogeneric family Arenaviridae (arenaviruses) have been known to infect only muroid rodents and, in one case, possibly phyllostomid bats. The paradigm of arenaviruses exclusively infecting small mammals shifted dramatically when several groups independently published the detection and isolation of a divergent group of(More)
The proline-rich homeodomain protein, PRH/HEX, participates in the early development of the brain, thyroid, and liver and in the later regenerative processes of damaged liver, vascular endothelial, and hematopoietic cells. A virulent strain of lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV-WE) that destroys hematopoietic, vascular, and liver functions also alters(More)
In our previous work we reported that HIV Tat and 6 cysteine rich peptides of Tat induce tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-induced ligand (TRAIL) in human monocytes (Yang et al., 2003). Here our results showed that HIV Tat and Tat cysteine rich peptide increase CCR5 expression in human monocytes, and this activity is inhibited by rabbit anti-Tat.(More)
In addition to its established role in innate immune mechanisms, complement component C3 is also of critical importance in B cell activation and T cell-dependent Ab responses. In this study, we have examined the requirement for C3 in the generation of primary CD8 T cell responses to an acute systemic viral infection. We compared Ag-specific CD8 T cell(More)
The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) Tat protein has a critical role in viral transcription, but this study focuses on its additional role as an extracellular effector of lymphocyte cell death. It is well known that Tat induces tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-induced ligand (TRAIL) in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), and we show that the(More)
A novel gene from the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans was isolated by hybridization with a human calmodulin complementary DNA probe. This gene, cal-1, is present at one copy per haploid genome. In-situ hybridization of the cloned gene to metaphase chromosomes allowed us to assign it to the nematode linkage group IV. The polypeptide predicted from the(More)
The cellular promyelocytic leukemia protein (PML) associates with the proteins of several viruses and in some cases reduces viral propagation in cell culture. To examine the role of PML in vivo, we compared immune responses and virus loads of PML-deficient and control mice infected with lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) and vesicular stomatitis(More)
Yellow Fever (YF) and Lassa Fever (LF) are two prevalent hemorrhagic fevers co-circulating in West Africa and responsible for thousands of deaths annually. The YF vaccine 17D has been used as a vector for the Lassa virus glycoprotein precursor (LASV-GPC) or their subunits, GP1 (attachment glycoprotein) and GP2 (fusion glycoprotein). Cloning shorter inserts,(More)
Arenavirus particles are enveloped and contain two single-strand RNA genomic segments with ambisense coding. Genetic plasticity of the arenaviruses comes from transcription errors, segment reassortment, and permissive genomic packaging, and results in their remarkable ability, as a group, to infect a wide variety of hosts. In this review, we discuss some in(More)
Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) and Lassa virus can cause hemorrhagic fever and liver disease in primates. The WE strain of LCMV (LCMV-WE) causes a fatal Lassa fever-like disease in rhesus macaques and provides a model for arenavirus pathogenesis in humans. LCMV-WE delivered intravenously or intragastrically to rhesus macaques targets hepatocytes(More)