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C(4) photosynthesis is a series of anatomical and biochemical modifications to the typical C(3) pathway that increases the productivity of plants in warm, sunny, and dry conditions. Despite its complexity, it evolved more than 62 times independently in flowering plants. However, C(4) origins are absent from most plant lineages and clustered in others,(More)
BACKGROUND The common or brinjal eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) belongs to the Leptostemonum Clade (the "spiny" solanums) of the species-rich genus Solanum (Solanaceae). Unlike most of the genus, the eggplant and its relatives are from the Old World; most eggplant wild relatives are from Africa. An informal system for naming eggplant wild relatives largely(More)
BACKGROUND AND AIMS An accurate characterization of biodiversity requires analyses of DNA sequences in addition to classical morphological descriptions. New methods based on high-throughput sequencing may allow investigation of specimens with a large set of genetic markers to infer their evolutionary history. In the grass family, the phylogenetic position(More)
Collections of specimens held by natural history museums are invaluable material for biodiversity inventory and evolutionary studies, with specimens accumulated over 300 years readily available for sampling. Unfortunately, most museum specimens yield low-quality DNA. Recent advances in sequencing technologies, so called next-generation sequencing, are(More)
Novel insights into the evolutionary history of a taxonomically complex tropical plant group were gained in this study using DNA sequence data. A molecular phylogenetic analysis of the newly circumscribed and expanded tribe Poranthereae (Phyllanthaceae) is presented. Sampling included 97 accessions for 63 of c. 120 species. Largely congruent results have(More)
A revision of Andropogon and Diectomis in Madagascar is presented with nine species and two subspecies (including eight native and seven endemic species) in Andropogon, and one species in Diectomis. Andropogon itremoensis from the Itremo Massif is described and illustrated. The Itremo Massif is briefly described and the conservation implications of the new(More)
A phylogenetic classification of tribe Poranthereae Grüning (Phyllanthaceae Martynov) is presented, based on molecular studies using DNA sequence data of nuclear ITS and plastid matK regions in conjunction with morphological characters. The tribe contains eight genera, four subgenera and 111 species. Circumscription of the genera differs considerably from(More)
Grasses, by their high productivity even under very low pCO2, their ability to survive repeated burning and to tolerate long dry seasons, have transformed the terrestrial biomes in the Neogene and Quaternary. The expansion of grasslands at the cost of biodiverse forest biomes in Madagascar is often postulated as a consequence of the Holocene settlement of(More)