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Until recently, members of the monogeneric family Arenaviridae (arenaviruses) have been known to infect only muroid rodents and, in one case, possibly phyllostomid bats. The paradigm of arenaviruses exclusively infecting small mammals shifted dramatically when several groups independently published the detection and isolation of a divergent group of(More)
Efficient recognition of tumor cells by cytolytic T lymphocytes (CTL) is often dependent on the presentation of cytosolic peptides in the context of MHC class I molecules. This process may be influenced by various molecular chaperones. To analyze this influence, we have utilized B16 melanoma cells, which are not effectively recognized by MHC class(More)
BACKGROUND Rhesus macaques infected with lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) provide a model for human Lassa fever. Disease begins with flu-like symptoms and progresses rapidly with fatal consequences. Previously, we profiled the blood transcriptome of LCMV-infected monkeys (M. Djavani et al J. Virol. 2007) showing distinct pre-viremic and viremic(More)
Human immunodeficiency virus disease involves progressive destruction of host immunity leading to opportunistic infections and increased rates for malignancies. Both depletion in immune cell numbers as well as defects in their effector functions are responsible for this immunodeficiency The broad impact of HIV reflects a similarly broad pattern of cell(More)
Viral hemorrhagic fevers (VHF) are acute zoonotic diseases that, early on, seem to cause platelet destruction or dysfunction. Here we present the four major ways viruses affect platelet development and function and new evidence of molecular factors that are preferentially induced by the more pathogenic members of the families Flaviviridae, Bunyaviridae,(More)
Acute SIVmac infection in macaques is accompanied by high levels of plasma viremia that decline with the appearance of viral immunity and is a model for acute HIV disease in man. Despite specific immune responses, the virus establishes a chronic, persistent infection. The destruction of CD4+ and CD4- lymphocyte subsets in macaques contributes to viral(More)
Lassa hemorrhagic fever (LHF) is a rodent-borne viral disease that can be fatal for human beings. In this study, an attenuated Lassa vaccine candidate, ML29, was tested in SIV-infected rhesus macaques for its ability to elicit immune responses without instigating signs pathognomonic for arenavirus disease. ML29 is a reassortant between Lassa and Mopeia(More)
Lassa virus (LASV) is the causative agent of Lassa Fever and is responsible for several hundred thousand infections and thousands of deaths annually in West Africa. LASV and the non-pathogenic Mopeia virus (MOPV) are both rodent-borne African arenaviruses. A live attenuated reassortant of MOPV and LASV, designated ML29, protects rodents and primates from(More)