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Neuro 2A (N2a) is a mouse neural crest-derived cell line that has been extensively used to study neuronal differentiation, axonal growth and signaling pathways. A convenient characteristic of these cells is their ability to differentiate into neurons within a few days. However, most differentiation methods reported for N2a cells do not provide information(More)
The mammalian neocortex is established from neural stem and progenitor cells that utilize specific transcriptional and environmental factors to create functional neurons and astrocytes. Here, we examined the mechanism of Sox2 action during neocortical neurogenesis and gliogenesis. We established a robust Sox2 expression in neural stem and progenitor cells(More)
In recent years, GDNF has emerged as a protective and restorative agent in several models of neurodegeneration; however, the exact molecular mechanisms responsible for these effects are not yet fully understood. Here we examined the effects of astrocytes secreting GDNF on neurons subjected to 6OHDA toxicity using in vitro neuron-astroglia co-cultures.(More)
The potential pathogenicity of two homoplasmic mtDNA point mutations, 9035T>C and 4452T>C, found in a family afflicted with maternally transmitted cognitive developmental delay, learning disability, and progressive ataxia was evaluated using transmitochondrial cybrids. We confirmed that the 4452T>C transition in tRNA(Met) represented a polymorphism;(More)
SOX2 is a key neurodevelopmental gene involved in maintaining the pluripotency of stem cells and proliferation of neural progenitors and astroglia. Two evolutionally conserved enhancers, SRR1 and SRR2, are involved in controlling SOX2 expression during neurodevelopment; however, the molecular mechanisms regulating their activity are not known. We have(More)
Although glutamate excitotoxicity has long been implicated in neuronal cell death associated with a variety of neurological disorders, the molecular mechanisms underlying this process are not yet fully understood. In part, this is due to the lack of relevant experimental cell systems recapitulating the in vivo neuronal environment, mainly neuronal-glial(More)
There is a need for improved therapy for acquired brain injury, which has proven resistant to treatment by numerous drugs in clinical trials and continues to represent one of the leading causes of disability worldwide. Research into cell-based therapies for the treatment of brain injury is growing rapidly, but the ideal cell source has yet to be determined.(More)
We have identified a functional cAMP-response element (CRE) in the human brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) gene promoter III and established that it participated in the modulation of BDNF expression in NT2/N neurons via downstream signaling from the D1 class of dopamine (DA) receptors. The up-regulation of BDNF expression, in turn, produced(More)
Myosin phosphatase target subunit 1 (MYPT1), together with catalytic subunit of type1 delta isoform (PP1cdelta) and a small 20-kDa regulatory unit (M20), form a heterotrimeric holoenzyme, myosin phosphatase (MP), which is responsible for regulating the extent of myosin light chain phosphorylation. Here we report the identification and characterization of a(More)
S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO) is an endogenously produced S-nitrosylating compound that controls the function of various proteins. While a number of rodent cell lines have been used to study GSNO-induced apoptosis, the mechanisms of action remain to be evaluated in human cells and in parallel with other common apoptosis-inducing agents. In this study, we(More)