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Many studies have supported a genetic etiology for autism. Here we report mutations in two X-linked genes encoding neuroligins NLGN3 and NLGN4 in siblings with autism-spectrum disorders. These mutations affect cell-adhesion molecules localized at the synapse and suggest that a defect of synaptogenesis may predispose to autism.
The development of the Asperger Syndrome (and high-functioning autism) Diagnostic Interview (ASDI) is described. Preliminary data from a clinical study suggest that inter-rater reliability and test-retest stability may be excellent, with kappas exceeding 0.90 in both instances. The validity appears to be relatively good. No attempt was made in the present(More)
BACKGROUND Individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) often display symptoms from other diagnostic categories. Studies of clinical and psychosocial outcome in adult patients with ASDs without concomitant intellectual disability are few. The objective of this paper is to describe the clinical psychiatric presentation and important outcome measures of(More)
OBJECTIVE Autism spectrum disorders are considered to be among the most heritable mental disorders, a notion based on surprisingly sparse data from small clinical studies. Population-based studies of the heritability of other neuropsychiatric disorders and comorbidities among them have also been sparse. The authors sought to address both of these issues. (More)
The aim of this study was to assess prospectively the long-term outcome in a representative sample of teenage-onset anorexia nervosa (AN) in respect of psychiatric disorders and overall outcome. Fifty-one AN cases, recruited by community screening, with a mean age of onset of 14 years, was contrasted with 51 matched comparison cases at a mean age of 24(More)
BACKGROUND Although the clinical utility of categorically defined attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is well established, there is also strong evidence supporting the notion of ADHD as an extreme of a continuous trait. Nevertheless, the question of whether the etiology is the same for different levels of DSM-IV ADHD symptoms remains to be(More)
CONTEXT Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) have been suggested to represent the extreme end of a normal distribution of autistic like traits (ALTs). However, the evidence of this notion is inconclusive. OBJECTIVE To study whether there are similar genetic and/or environmental etiologies behind ASDs and ALTs. DESIGN A nationwide twin study. PARTICIPANTS(More)
OBJECTIVE To study the development of personality disorders, especially those involving obsessions, compulsions, and social interaction problems, in a representative group of anorexia nervosa (AN) cases. METHOD The prevalence of personality disorders, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and autism spectrum disorders at mean age 24 years (10 years after(More)
Fifty-one teenage cases with anorexia nervosa (AN) were compared with 51 age-, sex-, and school-matched cases with respect to premorbid developmental, physical, and psychiatric problems and comorbidity at the time of examination. Almost half of the AN group consisted of the total population of AN cases in one birth cohort. There were more premorbid(More)
A community-based sample of adolescent-onset anorexia nervosa (AN) cases (n = 51) was contrasted with an age-, sex-, and school-matched comparison group [comp] (n = 51) on the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised (WAIS-R) at a mean age of 21 years. There were no study dropouts. Fewer than 10% of AN cases were underweight at the time of testing.(More)