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Recently, neurotransmitters/neurohormones have been identified as factors controlling the function of microglia, the immune competent cells of the central nervous system. In this study, we compared the responsiveness of microglia to neurotransmitters/neurohormones. We freshly isolated microglia from healthy adult C57Bl/6 mice and found that only a small(More)
In vitro studies show that microglia, the resident immune cells of the brain, express neurotransmitter and neuropeptide receptors which are linked to Ca(2+) signaling. Here we describe an approach to obtain Ca(2+) recordings from microglia in situ. We injected a retrovirus encoding a calcium sensor into the cortex of mice 2 days after stimulation of(More)
Microglia undergo a process of activation in pathology which is controlled by many factors including neurotransmitters. We found that a subpopulation (11 %) of freshly isolated adult microglia respond to the muscarinic acetylcholine receptor agonist carbachol with a Ca2+ increase and a subpopulation of similar size (16 %) was observed by FACS analysis using(More)
During the inflammation which occurs following nerve damage, macrophages are recruited to the site of injury. Phenotypic diversity is a hallmark of the macrophage lineage and includes pro-inflammatory M1 and anti-inflammatory M2 populations. Our aim in this study was to investigate the ability of polarized M0, M1, and M2 macrophages to secrete opioid(More)
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