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During asymmetric cell division, the mitotic spindle must be properly oriented to ensure the asymmetric segregation of cell fate determinants into only one of the two daughter cells. In Drosophila neuroblasts, spindle orientation requires heterotrimeric G proteins and the G alpha binding partner Pins, but how the Pins-G alphai complex interacts with the(More)
Polycomb complexes establish chromatin modifications for maintaining gene repression and are essential for embryonic development in mice. Here we use pluripotent embryonic stem (ES) cells to demonstrate an unexpected redundancy between Polycomb-repressive complex 1 (PRC1) and PRC2 during the formation of differentiated cells. ES cells lacking the function(More)
Allelic exclusion of immunoglobulin genes ensures the expression of a single antibody molecule in B cells through mostly unknown mechanisms. Large-scale contraction of the immunoglobulin heavy-chain (Igh) locus facilitates rearrangements between Igh variable (V(H)) and diversity gene segments in pro-B cells. Here we show that these long-range interactions(More)
Systematic genetic approaches have provided deep insight into the molecular and cellular mechanisms that operate in simple unicellular organisms. For multicellular organisms, however, the pleiotropy of gene function has largely restricted such approaches to the study of early embryogenesis. With the availability of genome-wide transgenic RNA interference(More)
Genome-wide RNA interference (RNAi) screens have identified near-complete sets of genes involved in cellular processes. However, this methodology has not yet been used to study complex developmental processes in a tissue-specific manner. Here we report the use of a library of Drosophila strains expressing inducible hairpin RNAi constructs to study the Notch(More)
Reversible contraction of immunoglobulin loci juxtaposes the variable (V) genes next to the (diversity)-joining-constant ((D)JC) gene domain, thus facilitating V-(D)J recombination. Here we show that the T cell receptor beta (Tcrb) and T cell receptor alphadelta (Tcra-Tcrd) loci also underwent long-range interactions by looping in double-negative and(More)
We identify a highly specific mutation (jf18) in the Caenorhabditis elegans nuclear envelope protein matefin MTF-1/SUN-1 that provides direct evidence for active involvement of the nuclear envelope in homologous chromosome pairing in C. elegans meiosis. The reorganization of chromatin in early meiosis is disrupted in mtf-1/sun-1(jf18) gonads, concomitant(More)
Heart diseases are the most common causes of morbidity and death in humans. Using cardiac-specific RNAi-silencing in Drosophila, we knocked down 7061 evolutionarily conserved genes under conditions of stress. We present a first global roadmap of pathways potentially playing conserved roles in the cardiovascular system. One critical pathway identified was(More)
Progression through mitosis depends on a large number of protein complexes that regulate the major structural and physiological changes necessary for faithful chromosome segregation. Most, if not all, of the mitotic processes are regulated by a set of mitotic protein kinases that control protein activity by phosphorylation. Although many mitotic(More)
V(H)-DJ(H) recombination of the immunoglobulin heavy chain (Igh) locus is temporally and spatially controlled during early B cell development, and yet no regulatory elements other than the V(H) gene promoters have been identified throughout the entire V(H) gene cluster. Here, we discovered regulatory sequences that are interspersed in the distal V(H) gene(More)