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Arts and Sciences (KNAW) for financial support. The authors acknowledge the comments of Adam Lederer, Maria Minniti and Lorraine Uhlaner. Starting with the descriptive Thurik (1999), this paper has evolved through many iterations while early versions have been presented at many workshops and conferences. Two anonymous referees provided valuable comments.(More)
  • José Ernesto Amorós, Oscar Cristi, Maria Minniti, JOSÉ ERNESTO AMORÓS, OSCAR CRISTI
  • 2009
Please do not cite without permission of the authors. When I was running about this town a very poor fellow, I was a great arguer for the advantages of poverty; but I was, at the same time, very sorry to be poor. Sir, all the arguments which are brought to represent poverty as no evil, shew it to be evidently a great evil. You never find people labouring to(More)
High failure rates and low average returns suggest that too many people may be entering markets as entrepreneurs. Thus, anticipating how one will perform in the market is a fundamental component of the decision to start a business. Using a large sample obtained from population surveys conducted in 18 countries, we study what variables are significantly(More)
In this article we provide an introduction to the papers in the special section of this edition of the European Journal of Development Research. We start by framing the challenges posed by female entrepreneurship to the research community, note some of the findings in the literature pertaining to the cross-national understanding of female entrepreneurship,(More)
In most cases authors are permitted to post their version of the article (e.g. in Word or Tex form) to their personal website or institutional repository. Authors requiring further information regarding Elsevier's archiving and manuscript policies are encouraged to visit: Abstract High failure rates and low average returns suggest that too many people may(More)
In " monopoly epistemics, " one privileged actor is asked to identify the truth. In " democratic epistemics, " several independent parties are asked. In an experiment contrasting them, democratic epistemics reduced the systemic error rate by two-thirds, supporting the claim that replacing monopoly epistemics with democratic epistemics would reduce error(More)
This paper models the tradeo¤ between increased autonomy from self-employment and the generally higher income that traditional employment o¤ers. While the demand for autonomy is a purely psychological construct, the economic tradeo¤s involved in its achievement are eminently amenable to quanti…cation and analytical modeling characteristic of economic(More)
Across countries, women own significantly fewer businesses than do men. We show that this is due, in large part, to the fact that the propensity to start businesses of women is significantly lower than that of men. The lower propensity of women, in turn, appears to be highly correlated to women's lower average levels of optimism and self-confidence, and(More)