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The vertebrate spleen has important functions in immunity and haematopoiesis, many of which have been well studied. In contrast, we know much less about the mechanisms governing its early embryonic development. However, as a result of work over the past decade-mostly using knockout mice--significant progress has been made in unravelling the genetic(More)
The receptor TLR9, recognizing unmethylated bacterial DNA (CpG), is expressed by B cells and plays a role in the maintenance of serological memory. Little is known about the response of B cells stimulated with CpG alone, without additional cytokines. In this study, we show for the first time the phenotypic modification, changes in gene expression, and(More)
At birth, contact with external stimuli, such as nutrients derived from food, is necessary to modulate the symbiotic balance between commensal and pathogenic bacteria, protect against bacterial dysbiosis, and initiate the development of the mucosal immune response. Among a variety of different feeding patterns, breastfeeding represents the best modality. In(More)
Splenectomized and asplenic patients have a high incidence of infections by encapsulated bacteria and do not respond to polysaccharide vaccines. To understand whether the absence of the spleen is associated with a defined B cell defect, we analyzed B cell subsets in the peripheral blood. We found that a population of B cells known as immunoglobulin (Ig)M(More)
BACKGROUND Recurrent lower respiratory tract infections caused by encapsulated bacteria might cause permanent organ damage in patients with common variable immunodeficiency (CVID). Despite the profound hypogammaglobulinemia, some patients do not experience bacterial pneumonia. We have shown that IgM memory B cells and natural antibodies play an important(More)
OBJECTIVES Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9), which recognizes hypomethylated DNA [cytosine-phosphate-guanine (CpG)], plays a role in the maintenance of serological memory and has been recently implicated in the pathogenesis of SLE. We previously reported that in vitro TLR9 triggers memory B-cell differentiation into antibody-producing cells, and that the(More)
In the present study we used mice with a developmental arrest of B cell production to study the ability of a limited number of normal B cell precursors to populate peripheral B cell pools. In chimeras reconstituted with mixtures of bone marrow (BM) cells from normal and B cell-deficient donors, we show that the rate of BM B cell production is a constant(More)
ADP-ribosylation is the addition of one or more (up to some hundreds) ADP-ribose moieties to acceptor proteins. There are two major families of enzymes that catalyse this reaction: extracellular ADP-ribosyl-transferases (ARTs), which are bound to the cell membrane by a glycosylphosphatidylinositol anchor or are secreted, and poly(ADP-ribose)-polymerases(More)
B- and T-lymphocyte populations have an independent homeostatic regulation of resting (B and T) and activated (B) or memory (T) cell compartments. This organization may provide an efficient mechanism to ensure simultaneously a first natural barrier of protection against common pathogens, the maintenance of immunological T-cell memory and a reservoir of(More)
Cellular competition for survival signals offers a cogent and appealing mechanism for the maintenance of cellular homeostasis [Raff, M. C. (1992) Nature (London) 356, 397-400]. We present a theoretical and experimental investigation of the role of competition for resources in the regulation of peripheral B cell numbers. We use formal ecological competition(More)