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This study was designed to isolate, characterize, and culture human spermatogonia. Using immunohistochemistry on tubule sections, we localized GPR125 to the plasma membrane of a subset of the spermatogonia. Immunohistochemistry also showed that MAGEA4 was expressed in all spermatogonia (A(dark), A(pale), and type B) and possibly preleptotene spermatocytes.(More)
Recent reports have demonstrated that adult tissue cells can be induced to pluripotency, the iPS cells, mostly with the addition of genes delivered using viruses. Also, several publications both in mouse and in human have demonstrated that spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) from testes can convert back to embryonic stem (ES)-like cells without the addition of(More)
Small RNA molecules (small RNAs), including small interfering RNAs (siRNAs), microRNAs (miRNAs), and piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNAs), have recently emerged as important regulators of gene expression at the post-transcriptional or translation level. Significant progress has recently been made utilizing small RNAs in elucidating the molecular mechanisms(More)
Understanding the extent of genomic transcription and its functional relevance is a central goal in genomics research. However, detailed genome-wide investigations of transcriptome complexity in major mammalian organs have been scarce. Here, using extensive RNA-seq data, we show that transcription of the genome is substantially more widespread in the testis(More)
Recently we and two other groups have shown that human spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) have the potential to become pluripotent in vitro in defined culture conditions and to differentiate into cells of the three embryonic germ layers. This discovery could open new avenues for autologous cell-based therapy in degenerative diseases, bypassing the ethical and(More)
MicroRNA 184 (miR-184) is known to play a key role in neurological development and apoptosis and is highly expressed in mouse brain, mouse corneal epithelium, zebrafish lens and human retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). However, the role of miR-184 in RPE is largely unknown. We investigated the role of miR-184 in RPE and its possible implication in(More)
Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) plays a crucial role in regulating the proliferation of spermatogonial stem cells (SSC). The signaling pathways mediating the function of GDNF in SSC remain unclear. This study was designed to determine whether GDNF signals via the Ras/ERK1/2 pathway in the C18-4 cells, a mouse SSC line. The identity of(More)
Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is one of the major causes of blindness in aging population that progresses with death of retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) and photoreceptor degeneration inducing impairment of central vision. Discovery of human induced pluripotent stem (hiPS) cells has opened new avenues for the treatment of degenerative diseases(More)
Spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) have unique characteristics in that they produce sperm that transmit genetic information from generation to generation and they can be reprogrammed spontaneously to form embryonic stem (ES)-like cells to acquire pluripotency. In rodents, it is generally believed that the A-single (A(s)) is the stem cell population, whereas(More)
Spermatogenesis is the process that involves the division and differentiation of spermatogonial stem cells into spermatozoa. However, the autocrine molecules and signaling pathways controlling their fate remain unknown. This study was designed to identify novel growth factors and signaling pathways that regulate proliferation, differentiation, and survival(More)