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Many developing neural systems with peripheral projections depend on their target for trophic support during a critical period of natural cell death. Much less is known about central systems. That dopaminergic neurons of the substantia nigra may depend on their target, the striatum, during development is suggested by the presence of a natural apoptotic cell(More)
BACKGROUND Rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep behaviour disorder (RBD) is a parasomnia characterised by dream-enacting behaviours related to unpleasant dreams and loss of muscle atonia during REM sleep. RBD may be idiopathic or associated with neurological disease. Available data suggest that in some cases RBD might be the initial manifestation of a(More)
Impairment in different cognitive domains such as executive functions, language, memory, and visuospatial skills occurs frequently in Parkinson disease (PD) even in the early stages of the disease. Although frank dementia (Parkinson disease dementia, PDD) is less frequent, risk for developing dementia is two to six times greater than the prevalence rate in(More)
BACKGROUND Parkinson disease with dementia (PDD) results from neuropathological changes in cortical and subcortical brain regions. Voxel-based morphometric analysis of magnetic resonance images can contribute to in vivo identification of the cerebral regions predominantly involved in PDD. OBJECTIVE To identify structural cerebral regions most closely(More)
OBJECTIVE To investigate the pattern of cortical thinning in Parkinson's disease (PD) across different disease stages and to elucidate to what extent cortical thinning is related to cognitive impairment. DESIGN Ninety-six subjects including 39 controls and 57 PD patients participated in this study. PD subjects were divided into three groups (early, n=24;(More)
The aim of this study was to investigate the progression of cortical thinning and gray-matter (GM) volume loss in early Parkinson's disease (PD). MRI and neuropsychological assessment were obtained at baseline and follow-up (mean ± standard deviation = 35.50 ± 1.88 months) in a group of 16 early-PD patients (H & Y stage ≤II and disease duration ≤5 years)(More)
Excessive daytime sleepiness is common in Parkinson's disease and has been associated with Parkinson's disease-related dementia. Narcoleptic features have been observed in Parkinson's disease patients with excessive daytime sleepiness and hypocretin cell loss has been found in the hypothalamus of Parkinson's disease patients, in association with advanced(More)
The term synucleinopathies is used to name a group of neurodegenerative disorders characterized by fibrillary aggregates of alpha-synuclein protein in the cytoplasm of selective populations of neurons and glia. These disorders include Parkinson's disease (PD), dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), pure autonomic failure (PAF), and multiple system atrophy (MSA).(More)
Alzheimer's disease (AD)-pathology may play a role in Parkinson's disease (PD)-related dementia (PDD). The aim of this study was to assess cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) levels of tau, phospho-tau, and beta-amyloid, proposed AD biomarkers, and their relationship with cognitive function in PD. Forty PD patients [20 nondemented (PDND); 20 PDD] and 30 controls(More)
Nonmotor symptoms (NMS) in Parkinson's disease (PD) can precede onset of motor symptoms. Relationship between premotor symptoms onset and motor features is limited. Our aim is to describe the presence and perceived onset of NMS in PD as well as their possible association with motor phenotype. Presence and onset of NMS were assessed by a custom-made(More)