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BACKGROUND There is no consensus method for determining progression of disability in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) when each patient has had only a single assessment in the course of the disease. METHODS Using data from two large longitudinal databases, the authors tested whether cross-sectional disability assessments are representative of disease(More)
Although cognitive dysfunction is a common finding in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) its pathogenesis remains controversial. Given the involvement of the hippocampal formation in the processing of cognitive information and the scarcity of quantitative studies in this brain region, we have examined, using stereological methods, the(More)
Prolonged seizures induced by neurotoxins or intracranial electrical stimulation provoke death of hippocampal neurons, which results in conspicuous learning and memory deficits. We examined whether repeated brief seizures elicited by electroconvulsive shock (ECS) can also deteriorate hippocampal structure and function. Adult Wistar rats were administered(More)
Complex III of the mitochondrial respiratory chain (CIII) catalyzes transfer of electrons from reduced coenzyme Q to cytochrome c. Low biochemical activity of CIII is not a frequent etiology in disorders of oxidative metabolism and is genetically heterogeneous. Recently, mutations in the human tetratricopeptide 19 gene (TTC19) have been involved in the(More)
BACKGROUND The descriptions of early axonal damage in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) prompted the search of body fluid markers. However, the studies addressing this issue in MS present conflicting results. AIM To assess the levels of tau protein in patients with definite MS. PATIENTS AND METHODS Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples from 50 patients(More)
A group of neurologists and clinical neurochemists representing twelve countries worked towards a consensus on laboratory techniques to improve the quality of analysis and interpretation of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) proteins. Consensus was approached via a virtual Lotus Notes-based TeamRoom. This new approach respecting multicultural differences, common(More)
We have previously shown that in the hippocampal formation of patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) there is neuronal atrophy, without cell loss. Because reductions in neuronal size are suggestive of associated neuritic alterations, we decided to study the dendritic trees of the main neuronal populations in the hippocampal formation.(More)
INTRODUCTION Current treatments for relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) are only partially effective. The objective of this study was to characterize treatment response in RRMS patients in Portugal to 12-month therapy with first-line disease-modifying therapies. METHODS In this retrospective study, neurologists at participating centers completed(More)
UNLABELLED Interferon beta (IFNβ) and glatiramer acetate (GA) were the first immunomodulators approved to the treatment of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (MS) and clinically isolated syndromes. Despite the enlargement of the therapeutic armamentarium, IFNβ and GA remain the most widely drugs and the therapeutic mainstay of MS. OBJECTIVE To review(More)
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an incurable disease, and despite current pharmacologic treatment being effective in reducing relapse rates and lesion burden, there is little evidence that these treatments work as effectively in preventing disability progression. In such cases, non-pharmacologic techniques such as exercise therapy with rehabilitation purposes(More)