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The role of the nonvisual photoreception is to synchronise periodic functions of living organisms to the environmental light periods in order to help survival of various species in different biotopes. In vertebrates, the so-called deep brain (septal and hypothalamic) photoreceptors, the pineal organs (pineal- and parapineal organs, frontal- and parietal(More)
The significance of autonomic nerves reaching the pincal organ was already investigated in connection to the innervation of pinealocytes and mediating light information from the retina for periodic melatonin secretion. In earlier works we found that some autonomic nerve fibers are not secretomotor but terminate on arteriolar smooth muscle cells in the(More)
The breeding of birds is expected to solve problems of nourishment for the growing human population. The function of the pineal organ synchronizing sexual activity and environmental light periods is important for successful reproduction. Comparative morphology of the avian pineal completes data furnished by experiments on some frequently used laboratory(More)
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