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Prior biochemical and electrophysiological studies have shown that low doses of ethanol inhibited calcium influx through the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor/ionophore. The present data show that chronic ethanol treatment results in an increase in the number of NMDA receptor/ionophore complexes in the hippocampus, a brain area known to be associated(More)
Ethanol physical dependence can be viewed as a state of latent hyperexcitability in brain which is exposed on withdrawal of the drug. This hyperexcitability may reflect an increased sensitivity to Ca2+ of central neurones. Dihydropyridine (DHP) binding sites which represent a subtype of neuronal Ca2+-channel, are increased in brains from ethanol-dependent(More)
Chronic constriction injury (CCI) of the sciatic nerve results in persistent mechanical hyperalgesia together with Fos protein expression in the lumbar spinal cord. We have examined the relationship between mechanical hyperalgesia and Fos expression within the lumbar spinal cord on days 14, 35 and 55 after either CCI or sham operation. To determine the role(More)
The actions of glutamate, the major excitatory amino acid in the CNS, are mediated by three receptor subtypes: kainate, quisqualate and N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors. Ethanol, in vitro, is a potent and selective inhibitor of the actions of agonists at the NMDA receptor. Following chronic ethanol ingestion, the number of NMDA receptor-ion channel(More)
The unilateral sciatic nerve chronic constriction injury (CCI) model of Bennett and Xie [G.J. Bennett, Y.-K. Xie, A peripheral neuropathy in rat that produces disorders of pain sensation like those seen in man, Pain, 33 (1988) 87-108] shows features of a neuropathic pain state. We examined mechanical hyperalgesia and Fos protein staining in the lumbar(More)
Since its discovery in 1982, neuropeptide Y (NPY) has been shown to have numerous effects mediated by a growing number of NPY receptors in both the CNS and peripheral nervous system. Perhaps best appreciated is the role of NPY in the control of systemic blood pressure, together with its effects on feeding, anxiety and memory. However, recent evidence(More)
Glutamate is the major excitatory amino acid (EAA) neurotransmitter in the central nervous system (CNS). 78 EAA neurones and synapses are distributed widely throughout the CNS, 36 231 but they are concentrated particularly in the hippocampus, 91 the outer layers of the cerebral cortex 91 and the sub-stantia gelatinosa of the spinal cord. 194 Within these(More)
Acknowledgements The authors would like to sincerely thank the following people, who all contributed their time, experience and knowledge to this handbook. This handbook builds on years of work at the Canadian Policy Research Networks bringing together cutting edge thinkers and practitioners in the field of citizen engagement. While it is not possible to(More)
Neuropeptide Y (NPY), a widely distributed peptide, has been shown to have numerous effects in both the central and peripheral nervous systems. In particular, NPY has an important role in mediating analgesia and hyperalgesia by distinct central and peripheral mechanisms. At least six NPY receptor subtypes are known to exist and the development of(More)
Editor,—Buerkle and colleagues report that intrathecal administration of remifentanil in rats that had received intraplantar forma-lin could wholly abolish nociceptive behaviour during phase 1 of the formalin test but was associated with only partial inhibition of glutamate release as measured by microdialysis. 1 Intraplantar injection of formalin results(More)