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In mice administered chronic stress--repeated overnight restraint stress for 7 days--there was a prolonged enhancement of dopamine (DA) uptake into synaptosomes. The mRNA for the DA transporter (DAT) was found to be concomitantly increased in the midbrain, as was the binding of the transporter ligand mazindol to DAT in the nucleus accumbens and(More)
Incubation with either of the protein kinase C activators phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) and sn-1,2 dioctanoylglycerol (DiC8) decreased the uptake of dopamine into striatal synaptosomes, whereas the inactive phorbol ester 4 alpha-PMA had no effect. Washout of PMA and DiC8 failed to reverse the decrease in uptake. Kinetic analysis showed a decrease in(More)
RATIONALE Nicotine displays rewarding and aversive effects, and while dopamine has been linked with nicotine's reward, the neurotransmitter(s) involved with aversion remains speculative. The kappa-dynorphinergic system has been associated with negative motivational and affective states, and whether dynorphin (Dyn) contributes to the behavioral pharmacology(More)
Clozapine is efficacious for treating dopaminergic psychosis in Parkinson's disease and ameliorates l-DOPA-induced motor complications. Based on its pharmacology and reported enhancing effects on dopamine metabolism and tyrosine hydroxylase activity, we investigated whether it could modulate the activity of aromatic l-amino acid decarboxylase (AAAD), the(More)
Nicotine withdrawal causes somatic and negative affective symptoms that contribute to relapse and continued tobacco smoking. So far, the neuronal substrates involved are not fully understood, and an opioid role has been suggested. In this regard, the opioid dynorphin (Dyn) is of interest as it produces aversive states and has been speculated to play a role(More)
Aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase (AAAD) is an essential enzyme for the formation of catecholamines, indolamines, and trace amines. Moreover, it is a required enzyme for converting L-DOPA to dopamine when treating patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). There is now substantial evidence that the activity of AAAD in striatum is regulated by activation and(More)
Following the administration of a single dose of diisopropylfluorophosphate (DFP) there is a rise of acetylcholine (ACh) in the rat striatum and frontal cortex. With chronic treatment, striatal ACh content returns to normal, but frontal cortex ACh remains elevated. In striatum but not frontal cortex, there is a rise of dopamine (DA) content and turnover(More)
The compound 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) is a relatively selective neurotoxin that destroys dopamine (DA)-containing nigrostriatal neurons. We have now studied the effects of MPTP on retinal dopaminergic neurons. Acute treatment resulted in the accumulation of DA when evaluated by direct chemical analysis or histofluorescence.(More)
A single dose of nicotine given to mice induces first a rapid decrease (presumed release/enhanced degradation) and then a rise (presumed synthesis/enhanced accumulation) of met-enkephalin (Met-Enk) in dorsal and ventral striatum observed at 30 and 60 min post-treatment, respectively. These studies investigated whether the nicotine effect on Met-Enk was(More)