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The involvement of the forebrain cholinergic system in arousal, learning and memory has been well established. Other neurotransmitters such as GABA and glutamate may be involved in the mechanisms of memory by modulating the forebrain cholinergic pathways. We studied the activity of cortical and hippocampal cholinergic, GABAergic and glutamatergic systems(More)
The microdialysis technique with one or two probes was used to investigate the modulation of cortically projecting cholinergic neurons by glutamatergic input in the rat in vivo. Male albino Wistar rats (250-300 g) were used. Under chloral hydrate anaesthesia microdialysis membranes were positioned in the parietal cortex, nucleus basalis magnocellularis(More)
All types of memory depend on the integrated activity of various brain structures and neurotransmitter systems and involve more than one receptor, signal transduction pathway and postsynaptic mechanism. The components of the extracellular signal regulated kinases-1 and -2 (ERK1/2) signal transduction pathways are ubiquitous and well conserved protein(More)
The extracellular levels of aspartate, glutamate, gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), and acetylcholine (ACh) were investigated by microdialysis, coupled with HPLC, in the ventral hippocampus of rats during two 30-min exploration periods. Motor activity was monitored. During exploration I, an increase in motor activity associated with a 315% increase in(More)
After oral administration, the nonimidazole histamine H(3) receptor antagonist, 6-[(3-cyclobutyl-2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-1H-3-benzazepin-7-yl)oxy]-N-methyl-3-pyridinecarboxamide hydrochloride (GSK189254), increased histamine release from the tuberomammillary nucleus, where all histaminergic somata are localized, and from where their axons project to the entire(More)
Injection into the nucleus basalis of the rat of preaggregated Abeta(1-42) produced a congophylic deposit and microglial and astrocyte activation and infiltration and caused a strong inflammatory reaction characterized by IL-1beta production, increased inducible cyclooxygenase (COX-2), and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression. Many(More)
Epidemiological studies indicate that long-term treatment with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs reduces the risk of Alzheimer Disease and may delay its onset or slow its progression. Neuroinflammation occurs in vulnerable regions of the Alzheimer's disease (AD) brain where highly insoluble beta-amyloid (Abeta) peptide deposits and neurofibrillary(More)
Adenosine is a potent biological mediator, the concentration of which increases dramatically following brain ischaemia. During ischaemia, adenosine is in a concentration range (muM) that stimulates all four adenosine receptor subtypes (A(1), A(2A), A(2B) and A(3)). In recent years, evidence has indicated that the A(2A) receptor subtype is of critical(More)
A consensus exists that cholinesterase inhibitors (ChEIs) are efficacious for mild to moderate Alzheimer's Disease (AD). Unfortunately, the number of non-responders is large and the therapeutic effect is usually short-lasting. In experimental animals, ChEIs exert three main actions: inhibit cholinesterase (ChE), increase extracellular levels of brain(More)
The activation of the cortical cholinergic system was investigated in 3- and 25-month-old male Wistar rats, by measuring by transversal microdialysis the changes in cortical extracellular acetylcholine (ACh) levels during the performance of simple spontaneous tasks involving exploratory activity and working memory. Two days after implantation of the(More)