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Dipeptidyl peptidase (DPP)-IV inhibitors are a new approach to the treatment of type 2 diabetes. DPP-IV is a member of a family of serine peptidases that includes quiescent cell proline dipeptidase (QPP), DPP8, and DPP9; DPP-IV is a key regulator of incretin hormones, but the functions of other family members are unknown. To determine the importance of(More)
INTRODUCTION Covalent protein binding of metabolically reactive intermediates of drugs has been implicated in drug toxicity including the occurrence of idiosyncratic drug toxicity. Investigators therefore would prefer to avoid developing compounds that produce significant amounts of reactive metabolites. By incubating the radiolabeled drug of interest with(More)
A novel series of beta-amino amides incorporating fused heterocycles, i.e., triazolopiperazines, were synthesized and evaluated as inhibitors of dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP-IV) for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. (2R)-4-Oxo-4-[3-(trifluoromethyl)-5,6-dihydro[1,2,4]triazolo[4,3-a]pyrazin-7(8H)-yl]-1-(2,4,5-trifluorophenyl)butan-2-amine (1) is a potent,(More)
The pharmacokinetics, metabolism, and excretion of sitagliptin [MK-0431; (2R)-4-oxo-4-[3-(trifluoromethyl)-5,6-dihydro[1,2,4]triazolo[4,3-a]pyrazin-7(8H)-yl]-1-(2,4,5-trifluorophenyl)butan-2-amine], a potent dipeptidyl peptidase 4 inhibitor, were evaluated in male Sprague-Dawley rats and beagle dogs. The plasma clearance and volume of distribution of(More)
Ischemia and reperfusion causes severe mitochondrial damage, including swelling and deposits of hydroxyapatite crystals in the mitochondrial matrix. These crystals are indicative of a massive influx of Ca2+ into the mitochondrial matrix occurring during reoxygenation. We have observed that mitochondria isolated from rat hearts after 90 minutes of anoxia(More)
We report a series of irreversible transglutaminase 2 inhibitors starting from a known lysine dipeptide bearing an acrylamide warhead. We established new SARs resulting in compounds demonstrating improved potency and better physical and calculated properties. Transglutaminase selectivity profiling and in vitro ADME properties of selected compounds are also(More)
The pharmacokinetics and metabolism of the l-threo isoleucine thiazolidide dipeptidyl peptidase IV inhibitor, di-[2S,3S]-2-amino-3-methyl-pentanoic-1,3-thiazolidine fumarate (ILT-threo) and its allo stereoisomer (ILT-allo) were evaluated in rats, dogs, and monkeys. Both compounds were well absorbed (>80%) in all species, and most of the dose (>60%) was(More)
1. The pharmacokinetics, metabolism and excretion of L-NIL-TA, an inducible nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, were investigated in dog. 2. The dose of [14C]L-NIL-TA was rapidly absorbed and distributed after oral and intravenous administration (5 mg kg-1), with Cmax of radioactivity of 6.45-7.07 microg equivalents g-1 occurring at 0.33-0.39-h after dosing.(More)
Tissue transglutaminase 2 (TG2) is a multifunctional protein primarily known for its calcium-dependent enzymatic protein cross-linking activity via isopeptide bond formation between glutamine and lysine residues. TG2 overexpression and activity have been found to be associated with Huntington's disease (HD); specifically, TG2 is up-regulated in the brains(More)
In-house screening of the Merck sample collection identified proline derived homophenylalanine 3 as a DPP-IV inhibitor with modest potency (DPP-IV IC50=1.9 microM). Optimization of 3 led to compound 37, which is among the most potent and selective DPP-IV inhibitors discovered to date.