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In recent years research in the planning community has moved increasingly towards application of planners to realistic problems involving both time and many types of resources. For example, interest in planning demonstrated by the space research community has inspired work in observation scheduling, planetary rover exploration and spacecraft control(More)
This paper reports the outcome of the third in the series of biennial international planning competitions, held in association with the International Conference on AI Planning and Scheduling (AIPS) in 2002. In addition to describing the domains, the planners and the objectives of the competition, the paper includes analysis of the results. The results are(More)
As planning is applied to larger and richer domains the e ort involved in constructing domain descriptions increases and becomes a signi cant burden on the human application designer. If general planners are to be applied successfully to large and complex domains it is necessary to provide the domain designer with some assistance in building correctly(More)
Stan is a Graphplan-based planner, so-called because it uses a variety of STate ANalysis techniques to enhance its performance. Stan competed in the AIPS-98 planning competition where it compared well with the other competitors in terms of speed, nding solutions fastest to many of the problems posed. Although the domain analysis techniques Stan exploits are(More)
The ultimate objective in planning is to construct plans for execution. However, when a plan is executed in a real environment it can encounter differences between the expected and actual context of execution. These differences can manifest as divergences between the expected and observed states of the world, or as a change in the goals to be achieved by(More)
Graphplan (Blum & Furst 1995) has proved a popular and successful basis for a succession of extensions. An extension to handle temporal planning is a natural one to consider, because of the seductively time-like structure of the layers in the plan graph. TGP (Smith & Weld 1999) and TPSys (Garrido, Onaindı́a, & Barber 2001; Garrido, Fox, & Long 2002) are(More)
This work describes aspects of our plan validation tool, VAL. The tool was initially developed to support the 3rd International Planning Competition, but has subsequently been extended in order to exploit its capabilities in plan validation and development. In particular, the tool has been extended to include advanced features of PDDL2.1 which have proved(More)
In this paper we present pddl+, a planning domain description language for modelling mixed discrete-continuous planning domains. We describe the syntax and modelling style of pddl+, showing that the language makes convenient the modelling of complex timedependent effects. We provide a formal semantics for pddl+ by mapping planning instances into constructs(More)