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In humans, the type I interferon (IFN) family consists of 13 IFN-alpha subtypes, IFN-beta and IFN-omicron the newly discovered IFN-like family consists of IFN-lambda1, -lambda2 and -lambda3. We have investigated the expression of type I and lambda IFN genes following virus infections or Toll-like receptor (TLR) triggering in monocyte-derived DC (MDDC) and(More)
The transcription factor STAT-4 plays a pivotal role in the IL-12-mediated development of naive CD4+ T cells into the Th1 phenotype. Initially thought to be restricted to the lymphoid lineage, STAT-4 was subsequently shown to be expressed in the myeloid compartment, mainly in activated monocytes, macrophages, and dendritic cells (DC). Here, we have studied(More)
Type I IFN are cytokines which play a central role in host resistance to viral or microbial infections and are important components linking innate and adaptive immunity. We and others have previously demonstrated that the production of IFN-beta by DC following bacterial infections or TLR triggering influences, in an autocrine manner, their maturation. In(More)
In human monocyte-derived dendritic cells (DC), infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis and viruses or stimulation with Toll-like receptor type 3 and 4 agonists causes the release of type I interferon (IFN). Here, we describe that the IFN-beta released upon stimulation with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid (poly I:C) is(More)
Although data show the importance of type I interferons (IFNs) in the regulation of the innate and adaptive immunity elicited in response to viral, bacterial and parasitic infections, the functional activities of these cytokines during fungal infections are poorly understood. We examined here the impact of IFN-β on the response of human monocyte-derived(More)
Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) is a zoonotic disease, transmitted mainly by the bite of ticks. The TBE virus (TBEV) belongs to the family Flaviviridae, genus Flavivirus and is able to cause meningoencephalitis. For serological TBEV detection, the neutralization test (NT) is the most specific assay available. Different NT protocols are used in the(More)
Group I CD1 proteins are specialized antigen-presenting molecules that present both microbial and self lipid antigens to CD1-restricted alpha/beta T lymphocytes. The production of high levels of gamma interferon and lysis of infected macrophages by lipid-specific T lymphocytes are believed to play pivotal roles mainly in the defense against mycobacterial(More)
As a result of their close association with the blood-brain barrier, astrocytes play an important role in regulating the homing of different leukocyte subsets to the inflamed central nervous system (CNS). In this study, we investigated whether human astrocytes produce chemokines that promote the migration of myeloid dendritic cells (DCs). By reverse(More)
We recently reported that dendritic cells (DC) infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) produce Th1/IFN-gamma-inducing cytokines, IFN-alpha beta and IL-12. In the present article, we show that maturing Mtb-infected DC express high levels of CCR7 and they become responsive to its ligand CCL21. Conversely, CCR5 expression was rapidly lost from the cell(More)
We report a case of laboratory-confirmed Zika virus infection imported into Europe from the Americas. The patient developed fever, rash, and oedema of hands and feet after returning to Italy from Brazil in late March 2015. The case highlights that, together with chikungunya virus and dengue virus, three major arboviruses are now co-circulating in Brazil.(More)